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### Question #: 14577

Question: The slaved axis moves slower that the other motor on the same axis

Current Solution

If you have a slaved motor, you need to make sure that the two driver's dip switches are set the same so they both use the same microstepping.  You also want to make sure that one of them is not losing steps by setting the motor tuning in such a way that the motor torque has a sufficient buffer.

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### Other Possible Solutions to this Question

• HOW DO I DETERMINE THE AMOUNT OF SCREW WEIGTH THAT MY MOTOR CAN HANDLE

There are two main questions that we can answer with respect to motor torque and the mechanical advantage of lead screws, 1) What torque motor do you need to lift a particular weight, or 2) What maximum weight will my motor torque be able to lift.

This formula uses Newtons (N) as it's final unit. Use this with the included radius (R) to determine the torque. Newtons can easily be converted to lbs or ounces using online conversions.

Effort = Sf + (Load/(2 x pi x (R/p) x Se))

where:
p = pitch of the screw
Se = screw efficiency = Standard lead screw will be between 20% (.2) and 40% (.4)
Sf = static force. This is the force that is needed to start the movement. The number may be eliminated, but it is good to use a number in the 5 N to 20 N range.
Load = the expected load that the effort will need to carry (i.e., the router and the included axis assembly that the motor will need to lift)

This formula is based on the "law of the machine"

The final effort amount with its unit of newtons and R will be the torque. For example, if the effort comes to 100 N (newtons) and the R is .5 inches, then you can assume that the effort is 50 N-in since it would take twice the effort to turn form the one inch mark from the center of the shaft.

Example:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 13 = .08 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .08) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 12.5 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (15.7))
Effort = 5 N + (5.73 N)
Effort = 10.7 N = 2.4 lbs = 38.4 oz-in

I am putting the oz-in on the end because the formula considers the distance from the center of the shaft to be one inch.

Therefore, a 425 oz-in motor would be able to lift a 20.2 lb Router with its accompanying assembly. If the assembly and router is heavier, plug in the numbers and determine the effort required.

With a bit of algebra, the formula can be rewritten to find the load:

Load = (Effort - Sf) x (2 x pi x (R/p) x Se)

Another formula that does not consider friction at all:

Effort = (Load x p) / (2 x pi x R)

Lets see if we get similar results:

Effort = (20 lb x .08 inches) / (2 x 3.14 x 1)
Effort = 1.6 / 6.28 = .255 lbs = 4.08 oz-in

The results from both formulas appear to be very small because a 13 TPI screw will have enormous mechanical advantage.

It is evident that the first formula that does consider friction that we are loosely estimating is far more conservative than the second formula. Either way, even the most conservative formula shows that the 425 oz-in motor will handle very large weights. If you are using a lead screw with only two turns per inch, .5 inch pitch, you can determine the requirements with the first formula.

Example for a 10 TPI 5 start (2 turns per inch) lead screw:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 2 = .5 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .5) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 2 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2.512))
Effort = 5 N + (35.83 N)
Effort = 40.828 N = 9.18 lbs = 146.88 oz-in

Customer Response:
thank you so much

how do i calculate torque of stepper motor if lead screw coupled to motor shaft and load applied by lead screw on plate is 100 kg by vertically

Pls

1m 16mmdiameter ball screws calculations

HOW DO I DETERMINE THE AMOUNT OF SCREW WEIGTH THAT MY MOTOR CAN HANDLE

• HOW DO I WIRE THE 4TH AXIS THAT YOU SELL. I HAVE MACH3 SOFTWARE. NO INSTRUCTIONS ON YOUR SITE

The motor that is attached to the 4th axis is wired as follows:

The motor should have red, green yellow and blue wires coming form the motor. The red and green are paired as one coil and the yellow and blue is paired as the other coil. You can wire the motor to a 3.0 amp driver with red to A+, green to A-, Yellow to B+ and Blue to B-

HOW DO I WIRE THE 4TH AXIS THAT YOU SELL. I HAVE MACH3 SOFTWARE. NO INSTRUCTIONS ON YOUR SITE

• MOTOR GOING TWO DIRECTION WHEN JUST PUSH UP. IT WILL GO DOWN AND THEN GOES AGAIN UP WITH THE SAME BUTTON.

Try slowing your feedrate down and increasing spindle RPMs. End-mills will leave a poor finish if you go too fast. Make sure your cutting depth isn't too much. Maybe the endmill or cutter is blunt? Could it be the feed direction of the cutter? Some materials need to be fed in a certain direction.

MOTOR GOING TWO DIRECTION WHEN JUST PUSH UP. IT WILL GO DOWN AND THEN GOES AGAIN UP WITH THE SAME BUTTON.

• MY AXIS ONLY MOVES ONE STEP AT A TIME IN LINUX CNC EMC2

Flip the values under "table travel" within "stepconf wizard". For example: if the table travel numbers are "4 to -10", switch them to "-4 to 10".

MY AXIS ONLY MOVES ONE STEP AT A TIME IN LINUX CNC EMC2

• HOW MUCH MOTOR CABLE SHOULD PURCHASE FOR THE BLUECHICK

The recommended total length of motor cable should be 15 feet for the blueChick v4.2

Z - 6 feet
Y - 5 feet
X- 4 feet

20 AWG 4 conductor

If your drivers will be positioned farther from the machine, you may need longer cable.

HOW MUCH MOTOR CABLE SHOULD PURCHASE FOR THE BLUECHICK

• HOW LONG SHOULD THE MOTOR CABLES BE FOR BLACKTOE

The motor cables for the blackToe are as follows:

Total 30 feet

X - 9
Y - 10
Z - 11

HOW LONG SHOULD THE MOTOR CABLES BE FOR BLACKTOE

• WHAT LENGTH OF MOTOR CABLE SHOULD BE USED WTIH THE BLUECHICK V4.2

The recommended total length of motor cable should be 15 feet for the blueChick v4.2

Z - 6 feet
Y - 5 feet
X- 4 feet

20 AWG 4 conductor

If your drivers will be positioned farther from the machine, you may need longer cable.

WHAT LENGTH OF MOTOR CABLE SHOULD BE USED WTIH THE BLUECHICK V4.2

• THE BLACKTOE REQUIRES HOW MUCH MOTOR CABLE

The motor cables for the blackToe are as follows:

Total 30 feet

X - 9
Y - 10
Z - 11

THE BLACKTOE REQUIRES HOW MUCH MOTOR CABLE

• DO YOU SUPPLY THE MALE PORTION OF MOTOR CONTROL CABLES WITH REDLEAF?

Yes and properly soldered.

20

DO YOU SUPPLY THE MALE PORTION OF MOTOR CONTROL CABLES WITH REDLEAF?

• HOW MUCH MOTOR CABLE FOR THE BLACKFOOT?

The motor cables for the blackToe are as follows:

Total 30 feet

X - 9
Y - 10
Z - 11

HOW MUCH MOTOR CABLE FOR THE BLACKFOOT?

• WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A PRINTER CABLE PORT AND USB MOTOR KITS

The parallel (printer cable) port is uses the computer as its main source of pulse trains to operate the motor driver directly. Parallel ports are a direct connection from the processor commonly referred to as GPIO pins (General Purpose I/O pins) and provides a convenient and powerful way to interface with the computer. The parallel breakout board is included in those kits only to condition those signals for use with the drivers.

The USB serves at the actual controller, sending the pulse trains, but the computer sends simple human readable instructions to the USB controller to tell the controller how to send pulses.

The non-technical differences that may serve as the most important information to you is that the parallel configurations allow for a wider variety of industry standard software that can be used to control the cnc machine. The USB that we offer requires the operator to use a software called Planet-CNC software which is a very well made and feature full cnc control software.

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A PRINTER CABLE PORT AND USB MOTOR KITS

• IS THE HARDWARE AND PLANS MACHINE SAME AS BOOK MACHINE?

Yes, the CNC machine hardware and plans combo is the same machine as in the book. The machine that we provide the plans for, can be found on the website, here http://buildyourcnc.com/Item/cnc-machine-scratchbuild

IS THE HARDWARE AND PLANS MACHINE SAME AS BOOK MACHINE?

• WHAT ARE THE BEST FOODS THAT WILL HELP YOU LOSE WEIGHT?

Lettuce, or any vegetable. Also drink a cup of water before meals, it'll make you feel fuller.

• WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PARALLEL AND USB ELECTRONICS COMBOS MOTOR KITS

The parallel (printer cable) port is uses the computer as its main source of pulse trains to operate the motor driver directly. Parallel ports are a direct connection from the processor commonly referred to as GPIO pins (General Purpose I/O pins) and provides a convenient and powerful way to interface with the computer. The parallel breakout board is included in those kits only to condition those signals for use with the drivers.

The USB serves at the actual controller, sending the pulse trains, but the computer sends simple human readable instructions to the USB controller to tell the controller how to send pulses.

The non-technical differences that may serve as the most important information to you is that the parallel configurations allow for a wider variety of industry standard software that can be used to control the cnc machine. The USB that we offer requires the operator to use a software called Planet-CNC software which is a very well made and feature full cnc control software.

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PARALLEL AND USB ELECTRONICS COMBOS MOTOR KITS

• WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE IN A 2.5 AXIS MACHINE?

An axis is a direction of motion controlled by the CNC machine control. It can be linear (motion along a straight line) or circular (a rotary motion). The number of axes a machine has determines it's machining capabilities. A 2.5 axis machine really has three moving axes, but only two axes can move together (most machines sold today are full three axis machines). For machining centers, a three axis machine will have three linear axes. A four or five axis machine will have three linear axes as well as one or two rotary axes.

Note that 2.5 versus 3 axis has yet another context. 2.5 axis machining requires that the machine have three axes, but only two axes must be moving simultaneously at any one time. (Simple operations, like drilling and most milling, fall into this category). On the other hand 3-axis machining requires that all three axes be moving at the same time (More complex operations, like the machining of sculptured surfaces required in molds and airfoils, fall into this category.)

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE IN A 2.5 AXIS MACHINE?

• WHAT THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 3 AXIS AND 5 CNC?

3 axis machines cannot create undercuts in the part.

These videos show the capabilities of 3 and 5 axis machining:

3-axis CNC:

&feature=fvwrel

5-axis CNC:
&feature=related

WHAT THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 3 AXIS AND 5 CNC?

• DOES ANY OF THE SOFTWARE THAT COMES WITH IT COMPATIBLE MAC 10.6?

There are several CAD/CAM programs out there for MacOS. Here is a list of a few: http://www.macuser.de/forum/f53/3d-2d-cad-395058/#post4499316
Of course, there is always SketchUp if you are in a pinch. There are a few CAM plugins for SketchUp as well, but I've never used them, so I can't vouch for them.

CAD/CAM will get you as far as designing your parts and producing the g-code, but if you also want to run the CNC machine with your Mac, you will need a piece of software similar to Mach3 or EMC to run the g-code. I haven't been able to find anything like these programs that runs on Mac, so you may have to run Mach3 or EMC in Windows using Boot Camp or a virtual machine such as VMware or Parallels.

Personally, I would use the Mac to do all the CAD/CAM, then use a cheap PC to run the CNC machine.

EasyDNC for OSX
www.dnc-x.com

Hi guys I’m new to the cnc and I’m beginning to learn how to operate and cad-cam software also my cnc runs on Mach3 my questions is if I should use MacBook to do all designs if I can have all this software to run on Mac or I have to use windows software to operate it? I have separate small computer connected to the cnc table who have Mach3 on it please help. Also if you know any other software much easy for beginners please let me know thank you guys!
My email if needed is r1jastrzebski@gmail.com

DOES ANY OF THE SOFTWARE THAT COMES WITH IT COMPATIBLE MAC 10.6?

• WHAT THE SCIENCE THAT STUDIES INSECTS?

Entomology is the science that studies insects.

WHAT THE SCIENCE THAT STUDIES INSECTS?

• WHAT IS THE FORMULA TO DETERMINE STEPS PER INCH OR RESOLUTION FOR EACH AXIS?

The formula and calculation is a starting point to get into the area of steps per inch. You will then need to use the mach3 calibration utility to get the exact steps per inch.

Formula:
step per inch = (motor steps * microstepping) / (travel at one turn of the motor in inches)
if microstepping is set at 16 (1/16 on the driver) then and you are using a sprocket and chain with a pitch of .25 inches and 12 teeth on the drive sprocket
= (200 * 16) / (12 * .25)
= 3200 / 3
= 1066.666 steps per inch

For lead screw that has a travel of .5 inches at one turn like the 5 start 1/2 inch lead screw and using 4 microsteps per step (1/4):
= (200 * 4) / (.5)
= 800 / .5
= 1600 steps per inch

Remember to use the mach3 calibration wizard and double check the driver microstep setting.

WHAT IS THE FORMULA TO DETERMINE STEPS PER INCH OR RESOLUTION FOR EACH AXIS?

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