CNC Electronics - Stepper Drivers, Motors, Power and more...
Here are the electronics that you will need to make the CNC Router move! I am offering
a bundle of components as shown below and individual products. This equipment will have the power for the
CNC router kits that I offer on the main sales page. This system will also enable
many other CNC retrofits.
3 Axis Electronics Combo
This is our standard general purpose 3 axis electronics system.
(3) 425 oz-in stepping motors
(3) Drivers (3.0Amp 24-40 Volts, 1-1/64 microstepping)
(1) 36v 8.8a Power Supply
(1) Interface Board either USB or Parallel (select the appropriate interface board in the price options.
3 Axis Electronics Combo w/ Parallel Breakout Board
$390.00 (2 day lead time)
3 Axis Electronics Combo w/ USB Interface Board
$436.50 (2 day lead time)
4 Axis Electronics Combo
4 axes systems are generally used as follows: 3 axes for x, y and z, and the 4th axis would turn the work piece being milled, or to turn the router/spindle for reach in specific applications.
(4) 425 oz-in stepping motors
(4) Drivers (3.0Amp 24-40 Volts, 1-1/64 microstepping)
(1) 36v 8.8a Power Supply
(1) Interface Board (USB or Parallel)
4 Axis Electronics Combo w/ Parallel Breakout Board
$470.00 (2 day lead time)
USB 4 Axis Electronics Combo w/ USB Interface Board
$516.50 (2 day lead time)
3 Axis Electronics Combo (For Heavy Gantry)
This bundle would be used in cases where there is one stronger motor needed. In most cases, this larger motor is used to move the gantry as this would be the part of the machine that is heavier or has the most inertia.
(2) 425 oz-in stepping motors
(2) Drivers (3.0Amp 24-40 Volts, 1-1/64 microstepping)
(1) 651 oz-in stepping motor
(1) Driver (6.0Amp 24-70 Volts, 1/2-1/256 microstepping)
(1) 36v 8.8a Power Supply
(1) Interface Board Depending on the One Selected (USB or Parallel)
3 Axis Heavy Gantry Electronics w/ Parallel Breakout Board
$460.00 (2 day lead time)
USB 3 Axis Heavy Gantry Electronics w/ USB Interface Board
$506.50 (2 day lead time)
3 Axis Electronics Combo (All Large Motors)
This options is for the heavier and larger CNC machines.
(3) 651 oz-in large stepping motors
(3) Drivers (6.0Amp 24-70 Volts, 1/2-1/256 microstepping)
(1) 36v 8.8a Power Supply
(1) Interface Board depending on the one selected (USB or Parallel)
3 Axis Large Motors Electronics w/ Parallel Breakout Board
USB 3 Axis Large Motors Electronics w/ USB Interface Board
You will need a power supply to power stepping motors and drivers and these 36 volt and 24 volt power supplies will deliver what the drivers and motors need.
Power Supply (36 Volts and 8.8 amps)
Power Supply (24 Volts and 8.3 amps)
NEMA 17 Stepping Motor (62 oz-in 5mm single shaft)
NEMA 24 Stepping Motor (425 oz-in 1/4" dual shaft)
NEMA 34 Stepping Motor (651 oz-in 1/2" dual shaft)
Stepping Motor Driver (24-40 volts DC, up to 3.0 amps, microstepping from 1 to 1/64)
$54.95 (2 day lead time)
Stepping Motor Driver (24-70 volts DC, up to 6.0 amps, microstepping from 1/2 to 1/256)
2.5 Amp Stepping Motor Driver
This stepping motor driver plugs conveniently into the 3D Printer main board. No cables from the main board to this board is necessary.
2.5 Amp Stepping Motor Driver
5 Axis Breakout Board with Relay
Basic Breakout Board
Breakout Board. This is our in-house developed board that has 11 output pins (5 axes uses 10 pins) and 5 input pins. The USB port is used as a convenient 5V connection to the computer. All data communication is made through the DB25 (parallel) port from your computer and connect to the drivers. Suggested Wiring Diagram
5 Axis Basic Breakout Board
3D Printer Main Board
This board plugs into the Arduino Mega 2560 and provides connections to the stepping motor drivers, end stops, RS-485, a ribbon connector for other functions, and a simple 12 volt terminal.
3D Printer Main Board
This board controls all of the functions of the extruder. Features of this controller include: monitoring the temperature of the hot end, heating the hot end, providing current to a heated table, fan control, and communicates to and from the 3D Printer main board and Arduino Mega pair.Click here for more information on this product.
3D Printer Extruder Controller
Arduino Mega 2560
This board becomes the brain of the 3D Printer and serves as the main interface to the computer. As you may already know, this is a high end Arduino product and can be used in all sorts of applications.
Arduino Mega 2560
E-Stop (Emergency Stop) Button - 120v-10A/240v-6A
If your CNC Machine starts to run wild, or decides to destroy itself, this button could save you machine, and your nerves! This button is capable of NC (Normally Closed - red side) and NO (Normally Open - green side) operation (notice the red and green on the bottom of the button). Push the button in to engage, and twist to release.
Emergency Stop (E-Stop) Button
Limit switches serve as the mechanism that tells the computer the limits of the CNC machine. When one of the axes moves to an axis limit, the switch is activated and the machine stops. These limit switches are also use to inform the computer of the home position. Typically, 6 of these switches are needed, two per axis. This particular limit switch is rated for 125/250 volts AC (VAC) and can handle 15 amps of current. For limit switch use for CNC machines, it will be connected to signal voltage levels like 5v, but you have the option of using this switch to turn on/off a device that has mains voltage levels (i.e. using it as an interlock to turn off something when a door is opened).
Single Limit Switch
Limit Switchs 6-pack
End Stop (Limit Switch)
This is a snap action switch and a little debounce circuit along for the ride. The board includes a convenient header and an LED to show its state. Only use this switch for signal level (5 volts low current) applications
Single End Stop Limit Switch
Tiny 5 Volt Tester LED
When putting together the CNC or other motion electronics, it's sometimes necessary to see if you have voltages in certain places. This tiny device will help with these little frustrations. Let me give you a scenario, you set up your CNC control software and the pins that will control certain axes, but you don't know if the software is talking to the pin. The 5V Tester LED can be connected to the actual pins at the back of the computer and show a light for high level and no light for low level. This device can also be used to troubleshoot electronic circuits.Click here for more information on this product.
Tiny 5v Tester LED
20 AWG Cable - Multiple Conductors
This cable is typically used for motor wiring from the drivers to the stepping motors. There are multiple wires within the gray jacket (called conductors). Specs: Unshielded, stranded copper, PVC jacket material, meets CSA/CE/UL specifications, standard flex (specifically made for use in motion applications). The individual wire insulation has the conductor number labeled so color coding is not necessary. Here is a handy link to learn about wire gauges and current handling capacity
4 Wire Cable
8 Wire Cable
DB25 Male to DB25 Male Parallel Cable
This is the cable that carries the signals from the computer to the CNC electronics. If there is a 25 pin female port on the back of your computer, and a female port on your breakout board then this is the cable for you. Features: Direct through connection for each pin, shielded, 6.56 feet long (2.0 Meters), beige color, lead free and RoHS compliant.
Male to Male Parallel Cable
DB25 Male to DB25 Female Parallel Cable
This is the cable that carries the signals from the computer to the CNC electronics. If there is a 25 pin female port on the back of your computer, and the breakout board has a male connector then this is the cable for you. Features: Direct through connection for each pin, shielded, 6.56 feet long (2.0 Meters), beige color, lead free and RoHS compliant.
Male to Female Parallel Cable
USB Controller (Breakout)
Control your CNC machine from your computer via the USB port commonly referred to as a breakout board. This board serves as an interface between the computer and the motor drivers. Based on the popular MK1 from Planet-CNC, you will need the Planet-CNC software with this board. The software is full featured and very easy to use.Click here for more information on this product.
USB Controller for CNC Machines
3 Conductor 22 AWG Unshielded Cable
Use this cable for signal level or low power. We use this cable for the 3D Printer end stops to and from the 3D Printer Mainboard. The cable is unshielded and the conductors are stranded 22 gauge.
Unshielded 3 Conductor Stranded 22 AWG Cable. Specify the total length in the quantity field.
Vacuum Pressure Controller
4 Pin Round Male Connector
4 Pin Round Female Connector
One Male and Female Connector Set
Breakout Boards: One of the most important components included
is the breakout board. This little gem allows you to interface your computer, using
the parallel port, with up to four (4) stepper drivers. Equipped with all of the
wire connectors, integrated circuits for interfacing and signal processing, and
resistors to protect your computer from any damage, this will keep you CNCing without
Drivers: Will translate the signals to what the stepper motors
will understand, and amplify the translated signals to turn the motors. As you can
see, there are loads of information silk screened on to the case for easy wiring.
That funny looking striped metal piece is for heat dissipation, since these driver
chips can get hot. Specifically, these drivers will be able to accept 24 to 40 volts
with current up to 3 amps. Think of amps as the muscle and volts as how fast the
muscle can be brought into the motors. These also enable microstepping at half,
quarter, fifth, eight, tenth, 1/25, 1/32, 1/50, 1/64, 1/100, 1/128, 1/200 and 1/256
(whew, that was tiring). It even has protection circuitry within for overheating,
over voltage and over current. there are dip switches for easy current switching
and this driver will accept 4, 6 or 8 lead motors. Oh yeah, the most important thing,
thiese puppies have idle current reduction.
Stepping Motors: Provide the linear motion. When the driver sends
a combination of current to the coils of the motors, it will turn 1.8 degrees, or
tighter depending on the microstep setting on the drivers. That is, if you have
half step, then the shaft will turn .9 degrees per step, quarter step .45 degrees
per step, and so on and so on... These are NEMA 24 motors (standards terminology
which only refers to its faceplate specifications and measurements), but don't let
the size fool you, these motors can hold at 382 oz-in or 425 oz-in of torque (depending
on availability). The current rating is 2.8 amps and 4.17 volts, so you will need
a power supply that can be drawn at 8.4 amps, which is a nice segway to the power
Shaft sizes for the NEMA 24 are 1/4" and NEMA 34 are 1/2", typically.
Wiring diagram: Wiring diagram for
3-axis using the standard breakout board
If the motors are not turning, and you are wondering why? Below is a few simple
steps you can take to localize the issue. These steps assume that you have Mach3
or another control software installed and the interface requires a parallel cable.
1. To determine if there is a signal coming out of your computer, you will need
to probe the port on the back of the computer and jog to see if the voltage changes.
You will need a multimeter. Test each pin that you set as output. If no signal,
it is a software or computer problem.
2. If there is a signal at the port, plug in the parallel cable and test the other
end to see if the cable is showing output. if not, the cable is bad.
3. If there is a signal from the parallel port, probe the respective pins on the
breakout board, if not, then the breakout board may not be configured properly (jumpers).
4. If there is a signal, you are half way there. Then we will need to check the
Here is a great guide that was developed by one of my customers, David W, as he
was troubleshooting his own electronics:
Trouble shooting - Build your CNC - diagnostic - motors won't /don't work
This is one trouble-shooting guide to the Blacktoe CNC table based on my experience.
It begins at the point when you have followed all of the instructional materials
to build the table, installed Mach3 on a desktop PC, configured the motors, plugged
in the parallel cable, tried to jog one of the axises... and gotten nothing. It
is also assumes that you have a multimeter and the basic tools. Here are some additional
resources that you will probably want to read before you get started:
Mach 3 documentation: http://www.machsupport.com/documentation.php
Here we go:
1. Before we start properly, if you haven't already, disengage the transmissions
by taking the chains off the sprockets to avoid an un-expected movement that might
damage you or your machine. Also, be sure you don't electrocute yourself either
-- unplug the logic system when you are working in the wiring (and be careful when
you are testing). Disconnect your parallel cable for now (as long as you are at
it, make sure you have the right cable -- you need a Straight Thru Serial DB25M/DB25M
like this one [ http://www.amazon.com/Belkin-25ft-Straight-Serial-DB25M/dp/B00004Z5W7
]). Also, restart your machine just to make sure you are starting fresh.
2. Download, install and start up a parallel port monitor:
This will give you immediate feedback on which pins are conducting at hi and lo
voltages. Remember: "In TTL circuits, any voltage between 0 and 0.8 volts is called
"lo" and any voltage between 2.4 and 5 volts is called "hi"."
3. Double-check your "Ports and Pins" configuration.
In Config/Ports and Pins/Motor Output you want these values:
X, Y and Z set to Enabled
X, Y and Z set to Step Low Active
X-axis: Step Pin #: 2
X-axis: Dir Pin #: 3
Y-axis: Step Pin #: 4
Y-axis: Dir Pin #: 5
Z-axis: Step Pin #: 6
Z-axis: Dir Pin #: 7
4. Go into Config/Ports and Pins/Input Signals/EStop and click on "Active Low".
Mach 3 cannot disable the EStop, so this will "reverse" the emergency stop to inactive
on a lo signal (such as when the plug is disconnected). You will click this setting
on and off several times during trouble-shooting as you connect and disconnect the
port cable, so get to know it:
Active Lo for when the cable is disconnected
Active Hi for when the cable is connected
5. In the Program Run screen, jog the X-axis a few times back and forth while looking
at the parallel monitor. You should be able to jog the X and Y axis by hitting the
arrow keys on your keyboard, but if you hit the Tab button, you can bring up a jogging
sub-screen that will let you jog it with the mouse. Note the location and colors
of the pins on the top right corner of the array (pins 1 through 7) and how they
change when you change direction. Note that pins 3, 5 and 7 will change from Lo
to Hi when you alternate directions.
Red = Hi Signal (2.4 - 5.0 Volts)
Green = Lo Signal (0.0 - 0.8 Volts)
6. Confirm these values by testing the parallel port connection in back of your
PC. You will need to look closely to find the pin numbers on your port because they
are printed very small, but they should be back there. Insert the black probe into
the #1 Pin (should be Lo) and probe each successive pin (2-7) with the red probe.
Do the voltages correspond to the values being reported by the parallel port monitor?
In my case, the Lo signal was 0.0 - 0.1 Volts and the hi signal was 3.3 Volts. Change
directions a few times to confirm. If not, your problem lies before the parallel
port output from your PC.
7. Now connect the parallel port cable to the back of your PC *but not your breakout
board yet*. Re-test the voltages at the end of the cable the same way you tested
them in back of the PC. It will be a bit trickier this time because you have to
contact the pins instead of letting the probe be held in the holes, but it's manageable.
Are you getting the appropriate voltage readings? If not, you might have a bad/wrong
8. Now you can plug the parallel cable into the breakout board again and plug in
the breakout board and driver power supplies -- there should be LED lights lit up
on every component. You will notice that Mach 3 will go into EStop mode because
you now have a hi signal going to the PC, so go back into Config/Ports and Pins/Input
Signals/EStop and toggle off "Active Low". Hit the reset button and try jogging
the X-axis a few times. If nothing happens, move onto the next step.
9. Check the power-supply wiring to the breakout board. Is the light on? If not
you might have your circuit reversed. Is there a loop running from the 5V power
supply to the "EN" pin on the board? If not your board is not engaged. Test it by
placing the red probe on the 5V pin and black probe on the #2-7 output pins. If
your board is engaged properly, the Hi signal output should be about 5.5 Volts (note
the increase in voltage). If it is not engaged, it will be running about 1.5 Volts
on each pin.
While this is by no means a comprehensive trouble-shooting guide, it should help
you isolate any issues you might be having in your system and hopefully get you
started a little sooner.