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Question #: 250

Question: HOW DO YOU CALCULATE THE ENERGY OF PHOTONEUTRONS PRODUCED THROUGH INTERACTION WITH 7.5 MEV BREMSSTRAHLUNG FROM A LINAC? TARGET GENERAL COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS IN TRUCKS.

Current Solution

http://hps.org/publicinformation/ate/q5906.pdf

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Other Possible Solutions to this Question

  • ARE THERE PRODUCTS AVAILABLE TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC THAT CAN BE PURCHASED PROTECT CELLULAR OR PORTABLE TELEPHONE USERS FROM RADIATION? IF SO, WHERE THESE FOUND?

    There are a number of opportunistic gadgets on the market to allegedly protect the user from hazards of cellular phones. You can search the Internet to find the latest, ranging from antenna shields to whole-body shielding materials. Most experts believe that these devices take advantage of customers' misunderstanding and unfounded fears to sell products with no real value. First of all, cell phones that operate within the guidelines established by national and international safety panels have never been shown to pose a health risk to the user (see answers to other questions on cell phone safety on this website). Secondly, placing any kind of shield over the antenna of a cell phone will in most cases cause it to increase its RF output as it attempts to compensate for signal loss in the shield and maintain a quality phone call. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration published an advisory on cell phones several years ago that said if you are concerned about risks of using a cell phone, then simply use it less. That is still good advice today. Gary Zeman, ScD, CHP Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Additional Information:



    Additional Information:

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    ARE THERE PRODUCTS AVAILABLE TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC THAT CAN BE PURCHASED PROTECT CELLULAR OR PORTABLE TELEPHONE USERS FROM RADIATION? IF SO, WHERE THESE FOUND?

  • i have Artcam 2013 for an General Inc. Icarver 40913. My computer crash with the Licenses from Delcam i would like to know how to get the licenses.

    If you purchased the ArtCAM from us, please send an email to us at customerservice@buildyourcnc.com with the name used with making the order and we will contact the developer to send you the license.

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    i have Artcam 2013 for an General Inc. Icarver 40913. My computer crash with the Licenses from Delcam i would like to know how to get the licenses.

  • I have a BlackFoot with a 3.25hp Porter Cable router. What is a safe starting IPM to optimize feed rate? How fast do you guys run full depth passes through MDO or MDF?

    It is not recommended that standard routers do full depth passes. This is better done with a spindle. For best results with routers, we recommend a depth that equals the cutting diameter of the end mill. The IPM will relate to the chip load of the end mill (look up the formula online and add it here). The IPM will also depend on the end mill diameter, the larger the diameter, the faster the feedrate. A 1/2" end mill can cut about 300-500 ipm where a 1/4" end mill will be able to cut at 80-120 IPM, at a depth equaling the cutter diameter using a router. With a spindle, the same feedrates can be applied, but with more depth per pass. For instance, an MDF full depth cut at 3/4" can be cut at the 100 IPM using a 1/4" cutter.
    Here is a basic setup we have for our blackFoot (default setting):
    X-Axis
    SPI: 914.29
    Acc: 400.02
    Vel: 5
    Y-Axis
    SPI: 1422.22
    Acc: 400.02
    Vel: 5
    Z-Axis
    SPI: 1600
    Acc: 400.02
    Vel: 79.98

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    I have a BlackFoot with a 3.25hp Porter Cable router. What is a safe starting IPM to optimize feed rate? How fast do you guys run full depth passes through MDO or MDF?

  • FIRST OF ALL, THANKS FOR DESIGNING A WONDERFUL SITE. MY QUESTION IS: HOW DO YOU CALCULATE EME (ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS) AROUND THE TRANSMITTER (ANTENNA) AT ANY GIVEN POINT AND WHAT ARE MEASURES TO KEEP IT UNDER SAFETY CODE?

    Conceptually it is straightforward to predict the radiofrequency (RF) exposure intensity at any point in the vicinity of a cellular radio base station antenna. Simply multiply the effective radiation power times the inverse square of the distance times the relative gain of the antenna in the direction of the interest. The relative gain in different directions is know as the antenna radiation pattern and is usually available from the antenna manufacturer in graphical or tabular form.

    Unfortunately, in real life the calculations involved in base station antenna evaluations are quite complex and require expert knowledge and experience to deal with the many parameters that are involved. An excellent reference summarizing this process is the Federal Communications Commission OET Bulletin No. 65 titled "Evaluating Compliance With FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields," available on the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) website.

    To assess the RF hazards associated with handheld cell phones it is necessary to predict the rate of absorption in the body of radiofrequency energy, a parameter called the specific absorption rate (SAR). This is a very complex calculation, and cell phone manufacturers often rely on measurements of SAR in fluid-filled cylinders or plastic containers in the shape of a head. The FCC requires cell phone manufacturers to provide this data to FCC. You can obtain the data for your model phone on the the FCC's website. Unfortunately only cell phones manufactured in the last couple years are listed here.

    As to your question about keeping RF exposures within the safety code, please read the other questions posted on this website this matter. Cellular radio products that meet FCC requirements will be within the guidelines established by safety standards organizations for users' and public exposure to RF radiation fields.

    Gary H. Zeman, ScD, CHP

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    FIRST OF ALL, THANKS FOR DESIGNING A WONDERFUL SITE. MY QUESTION IS: HOW DO YOU CALCULATE EME (ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS) AROUND THE TRANSMITTER (ANTENNA) AT ANY GIVEN POINT AND WHAT ARE MEASURES TO KEEP IT UNDER SAFETY CODE?

  • Hi. I am an absolute beginner and wish to produce carbon fiber products cut from 1 to 4mm sheets. All advice on cost and set up appreciated. Thank you in advance

    Please contact sales@buildyourcnc.com for a custom quote.

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    Hi. I am an absolute beginner and wish to produce carbon fiber products cut from 1 to 4mm sheets. All advice on cost and set up appreciated. Thank you in advance

  • WE'VE HEARD THAT ACIP HAS LIMITED THE USE OF ONE INFLUENZA VACCINE PRODUCTS FOR CHILDREN BEGINNING WITH 2010-11 VACCINATION SEASON. TRUE?

    Yes. You are referring to Afluria, which is manufactured in Australia by CSL Laboratories for the U.S. market. CSL's 2010 Southern Hemisphere influenza vaccine (Fluvax and Fluvax Junior) has been associated with increased post-marketing reports of fever and febrile seizures in children predominantly younger than age 5 years as compared to previous years. For this reason, on August 5, 2010, ACIP recommended that Afluria, 0.5 mL, licensed for use in people age 36 months and older, not be used in children younger than age 9 years. ACIP further recommended that Afluria could be administered to children ages 5 through 8 years who are at high risk for influenza complications if there is no other age-appropriate TIV available, after risks and benefits of using this vaccine in this age group have been discussed with the parent or guardian. The vaccine should not be given to children younger than age 5 years. For detailed information, go to www.cdc.gov/media/pressrel/2010/s100806.htm.

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    WE'VE HEARD THAT ACIP HAS LIMITED THE USE OF ONE INFLUENZA VACCINE PRODUCTS FOR CHILDREN BEGINNING WITH 2010-11 VACCINATION SEASON. TRUE?

  • with the blueChick v4.2 can any software be used or doo we need to purchase a lic key from the manufacture of the control board for 75 bucks

    If you have the USB controller you will need to purchase a USB controller license from planet-cnc.

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    with the blueChick v4.2 can any software be used or doo we need to purchase a lic key from the manufacture of the control board for 75 bucks

  • I HAVE NOT SEEN ANY REFERENCES TO STEPPING MOTOR ENCODER FEED-BACK FOR CLOSED LOOP CAPABILITY IN OF THE HARDWARE YOU SELL. THIS A SUPPORTED FEATURE WITH HARDWARE/SOFTWARE SELL?

    I haven't delved into using encoders with stepping motors too much. From my research, you need to have a controller that can provide the closed loop control, rather than software handling that process. I have also found from my research that using encoders on stepping motors is generally used to stop the machine in the case that the motor failed to achieve the commanded position for some reason and gives the user the chance to correct and continue with the job.

    If you want proper closed loop control, it may be best to go with servos and servo controller that provide the closed loop control within the real of those two components.

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    I HAVE NOT SEEN ANY REFERENCES TO STEPPING MOTOR ENCODER FEED-BACK FOR CLOSED LOOP CAPABILITY IN OF THE HARDWARE YOU SELL. THIS A SUPPORTED FEATURE WITH HARDWARE/SOFTWARE SELL?

  • I HAVE NOT SEEN ANY REFERENCES TO ENCODER FEED-BACK CAPABILITY IN OF THE HARDWARE YOU SELL. THIS A SUPPORTED FEATURE WITH HARDWARE/SOFTWARE SELL?

    I haven't delved into using encoders with stepping motors too much. From my research, you need to have a controller that can provide the closed loop control, rather than software handling that process. I have also found from my research that using encoders on stepping motors is generally used to stop the machine in the case that the motor failed to achieve the commanded position for some reason and gives the user the chance to correct and continue with the job.

    If you want proper closed loop control, it may be best to go with servos and servo controller that provide the closed loop control within the real of those two components.

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    I HAVE NOT SEEN ANY REFERENCES TO ENCODER FEED-BACK CAPABILITY IN OF THE HARDWARE YOU SELL. THIS A SUPPORTED FEATURE WITH HARDWARE/SOFTWARE SELL?

  • are you out of your freaking minds with these shipping rates. About to go through with order but you lost me! Good luck!

    Thank you for your feedback. Generally we are considered to be quite sane as a collective, although this can change from time to time.

    We have a disclaimer on shipping rates, especially if you are ordering from outside of the United States, rates are generally shown only for air-shipments from USPS, UPS, and FedEX, which can be quite expensive. We do work with several freight and shipping companies that allow us to calculate options for lowering shipping costs. These companies do not generally have APIs that we can integrate into the website, so we need time to process quotes.

    If the shipping quote you received from the website seems unreasonable, there is a good chance we can quote you a better rate. All you need to do is inquire with sales@buildyourcnc.com and we will make sure we get you the best possible rate.

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    are you out of your freaking minds with these shipping rates. About to go through with order but you lost me! Good luck!

  • hello there, i am using servo motor for my X and Y Axis but i dont know how to calculate steps/mm for that, the lead screw i am using is have pitch of .5 mm. please helpme on this i have done everything only this point is pending.

    The formula for finding the steps per mm is found in the units itself. First, you mentioned that the motor is a servo. This needs to be clarified as a servo is different than a stepper motor. Some servos behave similar to a stepper motor, so I will continue with this in mind.

    The formula is (steps/mm):

    You need to find the steps. The stepper motor has a natural number of steps per a full revolution. This is typically 200 steps per revolution.

    The driver for the stepper motor allows you to increase the number of steps per revolution by adding a specified number of steps between each step. For instance, if you set the driver to 1/4 microstepping, then instead of having 200 steps per revolution, you would have 200 x 4 = 800 steps per revolution.

    So now we have the first part of the formula:

    Steps / mm = (200 x 4) / mm

    Lets determine the mm side of the formula:

    You mention that the pitch is 0.5 mm. Check to insure that the lead is also 0.5 mm. This could be a multiple start lead screw where the pitch is different than the turns per mm. If in this case, that the 0.5 mm is the travel for one full revolution, then you can simply plug this into the formula as:

    mm = .5 mm

    Otherwise, determine how fat the travel is for one complete revolution.

    Therefor, with what we know and the driver is set at 1/4 microstepping and the stepper motor has a natural step count per revolution at 200:

    steps / mm = (200 steps x 4) / 0.5 mm = 800 steps / 0.5 mm = 1600 steps / mm

    If your travel for one revolution is not 0.5 mm, then plug in your travel distance instead.



    Additional Information:
    i know about steps/mm calculation for stepper motor, because i am using servo motor that why i asked about that. please tell for servo motor.

    Additional Information:
    because its my first time with servo motor i have no idea about calculation of parameter with servo.

    Additional Information:
    Have you attempted to contact the manufacturer or seller of the servo? We typically respond to customers of our products on this customer service area, unless we have extensive knowledge of the subject and can answer the question efficiently.

    Additional Information:

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    hello there, i am using servo motor for my X and Y Axis but i dont know how to calculate steps/mm for that, the lead screw i am using is have pitch of .5 mm. please helpme on this i have done everything only this point is pending.

  • HOW CAN I DETERMINE THE DOSE EQUIVALENT (MREM/HR, MREM/WK, MREM/YR) USING RAW DATA FROM A TLD (THERMOLUMINESCENT DOSIMETER) THAT WAS PLACED IN AN OFFICE FOR 22 DAYS?

    Assumption 1: The "raw data" of 24 mrem on the TLD is the total dose received by the TLD during the 22 days that the TLD was deployed in your office. This means that (1) any TLD reader background signal has been properly subtracted, (2) the signal accumulating in the TLD during any transport or storage time between preparation (annealing) and deployment in your office has been properly subtracted and, (3) the signal accumulating in the TLD during any transport or storage time between removal from your office and processing (reading) has been properly subtracted.

    With this assumption, the total dose rate in your office is (24 mrem)/(22 days), or 1.091 mrem per day. The reference background is given as 63 mrem per year which is (63 days)/(365.25 days per year) or 0.172 mrem per day. Thus the average net dose rate to the TLD during the 22 days was (1.091-0.172) = 0.919 mrem per day.

    Assumption 2: The net dose rate of 0.919 mrem per day in your office is attributable to the accelerator or other regulated sources under the control of your institution.

    Assumption 3: The office occupancy factor of 1/4 attributed in your question to NCRP Report 49 was misread from Table 4. The correct occupancy factor given in NCRP 49 for offices is 1.

    Assumption 4: You take 20 business days per year off for vacation and holidays. You work in your office for the remaining 240 days per year.

    Assumption 5: All of the accelerator shots occur while you are in your office.

    Assumption 6: The average net dose rate of 0.919 mrem per day determined during the 22 days of measurement continues for a year.

    Based on the data that you provided and my assumptions, your annual dose received in your office from the accelerator or other regulated sources at your institution is predicted to be (0.919 mrem per day) x (240 work days per year) = 220 mrem.

    Tom Gesell, PhD

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    HOW CAN I DETERMINE THE DOSE EQUIVALENT (MREM/HR, MREM/WK, MREM/YR) USING RAW DATA FROM A TLD (THERMOLUMINESCENT DOSIMETER) THAT WAS PLACED IN AN OFFICE FOR 22 DAYS?

  • [575] How much current can the outputs handle? I want to know if I can directly switch my SGR or if I have to go through the existing C36 rev1.1 board first.

    The output current for the Mach3 USB Interface Board is 50mA. These outputs are generally not designed to handle heavy loads like Spindle Governor Relays (SGRs).

    If your SGR requires a hefty current. Attempting to directly switch it using just the Mach3 USB Interface Board would not be a good idea. In that case, using your existing C36 rev1.1 board as an intermediary is the way to go. That board can handle higher currents and will act as a buffer, ensuring that the Mach3 USB Interface Board doesn't get overwhelmed.

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    [575] How much current can the outputs handle? I want to know if I can directly switch my SGR or if I have to go through the existing C36 rev1.1 board first.

  • How can i get a complete list of all the components (electronics) I need for a CNC laser cutter with the laser controller? A wiring Diagram would probably be very helpful.

    All the options for and variations of our blackTooth laser cutter/engraver are available on our website here https://buildyourcnc.com/blackToothLaserCutterAndEngraver.aspx#prettyPhoto. The wiring diagram is available here: https://buildyourcnc.com/blackToothLaserCutterAndEngraver.aspx#prettyPhoto/0/
    We do not offer plans or a bill of materials for our machines at this time, but if you are interested in doing your own from scratch you can learn a lot about the design and build process from our tutorials. We wish you success in your endeavors.

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    How can i get a complete list of all the components (electronics) I need for a CNC laser cutter with the laser controller? A wiring Diagram would probably be very helpful.

  • OUR FIRST ATTEMPTS WERE WITH THE PLANET-CNC SOFTWARE, GOING THROUGH USB BOB. NO PROBLEM GETTING X & Y AXIS TO MOVE BUT UNABLE GET ANY ACTIVITY ON Z AXIS. WE THEN INSTALLED MANUAL SWITCH BETWEEN 5V AND TL, JOY. DISCONNECTED BOB FROM TH, MOVED OVER TH TL STILL

    Is the signal gnd on the laser power supply connected to a gnd on the breakout board? Do you hear a high pitched sound, like a TV set with an antenna getting interference, but with a high pitch?

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    OUR FIRST ATTEMPTS WERE WITH THE PLANET-CNC SOFTWARE, GOING THROUGH USB BOB. NO PROBLEM GETTING X & Y AXIS TO MOVE BUT UNABLE GET ANY ACTIVITY ON Z AXIS. WE THEN INSTALLED MANUAL SWITCH BETWEEN 5V AND TL, JOY. DISCONNECTED BOB FROM TH, MOVED OVER TH TL STILL

  • AM NOT SURE HOW TO SET THE Z AXIS TURN ON/OFF LASER WHEN CREATE CODE. KNOW THAT ITS TYPICALLY Z-AXIS MOVEMENT DOES THIS - BUT YOU DONT SHOW ANYTHING HOOKED UP IN PLACE OF AXIS.

    When the z axis is going down, the laser turns on. When the z axis is going up, it turns off. The z axis directions is only a signal that is either 5v or 0v. That determines the direction. In vectric, you will need to set your machining operations with a very very small depth so the time it takes to get to its final depth is a very short time.

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    AM NOT SURE HOW TO SET THE Z AXIS TURN ON/OFF LASER WHEN CREATE CODE. KNOW THAT ITS TYPICALLY Z-AXIS MOVEMENT DOES THIS - BUT YOU DONT SHOW ANYTHING HOOKED UP IN PLACE OF AXIS.

  • CAN YOU RECOMMEND WHICH CNC MACHINE TO GO WITH FOR CUTTING MELAMINE AND MAKING KITCHEN DOORS FROM MDF. ALSO DO PROVIDE TRAINING ON OPERATING SETTING UP SHOP PRODUCTION USE? THANKS

    All of our CNC machines can cut melamine. If your application (kitchen doors) requires large cutting area, then I would recommend the following machines:

    - greenBull 4x (4'x8'), 5x (5'x10') or 6x (6'x 12')

    - greenLean 4'x8' vertically oriented CNC machine

    - Or our Fabricator Pro 4'x8' metal CNC machine

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    CAN YOU RECOMMEND WHICH CNC MACHINE TO GO WITH FOR CUTTING MELAMINE AND MAKING KITCHEN DOORS FROM MDF. ALSO DO PROVIDE TRAINING ON OPERATING SETTING UP SHOP PRODUCTION USE? THANKS

  • I have registered version of planetcnc software that I purchased with a Chinese controller I want to use 3 better drivers with a separate USB controller can you recommend a controller and how to link my existing software. Regards Lloyd from Australia

    You can only use the planet-cnc interfaces with the PlanetCNC software. If you like the software and want to remain with that software, the hardware interfaces will need to be purchased from the planet-cnc folks.

    I would recommend using the Pokeys57CNC interface which is compatible with Mach3 and Mach4. You can also consider the Mach3 USB interface if the Pokeys57CNc interface is out of your price range.

    Pokeys57CNC product page:
    https://www.buildyourcnc.com/item/electronicsAndMotors-electronic-component-breakout-Mach4-mach3-USB-ethernet-Board

    Mach3 USB product page:
    https://www.buildyourcnc.com/item/electronicsAndMotors-electronic-component-breakout-Mach3-USB-Board

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    I have registered version of planetcnc software that I purchased with a Chinese controller I want to use 3 better drivers with a separate USB controller can you recommend a controller and how to link my existing software. Regards Lloyd from Australia

  • WAS WONDERING IF YOU COULD TELL ME WHETHER OR NOT SHIP ANY OF YOUR KIT PRODUCTS TO THE UK?

    You can determine if the area is serviceable by:
    - selecting the items you want to purchase on the website
    - go to the cart (shopping cart top left of any webpage)
    - log in, or register
    - Enter the address and click on calculate shipping.

    The webpage will return the direct rates and whether your area is serviced or not. Feel free to enter any address as long as you are able to receive the package from that address.

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    WAS WONDERING IF YOU COULD TELL ME WHETHER OR NOT SHIP ANY OF YOUR KIT PRODUCTS TO THE UK?

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