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Question #: 268

Question: IT LIKELY THAT CELLULAR PHONE USAGE COULD EFFECT A CHANGE IN 400 MHZ NMR SPECTROMETER'S MAGNET IF HAS DECENT SHIELDING (TOP-OF-THE-LINE SHIELDING, CA. 1992)?

Current Solution

Some electronic equipment has been shown to be sensitive to radiofrequency interference from cell phones. I suggest you talk with the manufacturer of the spectrometer for information about it.

Gary H. Zeman, ScD, CHP

Respond:

Other Possible Solutions to this Question

  • THERE´S A CELLULAR PHONE ANTENNA ON THE ROOF OF BUILDING RIGHT OPPOSITE MY WINDOW, LEVEL ABOUT TEN METERS ABOVE HEAD. AM I LIKELY TO BE IN RADIUS RADIATION?

    You will have to contact the cell phone company that operates that particular antenna to obtain the radiation pattern (or emission pattern) of that particular type of antenna. Different models of antennae have different emission patterns to provide coverage of different size and shape geographical areas. For example, many of the antennae are directional, only broadcasting in the forward direction. Most emit very little radiation in the upward and downward directions, although the vertical extent of the beam can be quite different for different antennas. Some are strongly focussed on the horizon, others provide better coverage of nearby areas. Many antennae only broadcasting into a defined geometrical sector of the horizion, often 120 degrees so that three sets of antennae are required to cover the entire horizon. Therefore, to find the type of radiation pattern broadcast by any particular antenna will require local information from the equipment operator. Gary Zeman, ScD

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    THERE´S A CELLULAR PHONE ANTENNA ON THE ROOF OF BUILDING RIGHT OPPOSITE MY WINDOW, LEVEL ABOUT TEN METERS ABOVE HEAD. AM I LIKELY TO BE IN RADIUS RADIATION?

  • COULD YOU PLEASE EXPLAIN, IF IT'S TRUE, THAT HANDS-FREE CELL PHONE CAR MICROPHONES RADIATE MORE THAN ANY OTHER INSTRUMENT USED WITH THESE PHONES?

    Hands-free cell phone car microphones have been tested by the manufacturers and meet the current ANSI/IEEE (American National Standards Institute/Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) standards for radiofrequency (RF) safety. These are the same standards that the Federal Communications Commission enforces under the Telecommunications Act of 1996, and they place limits on the specific absorption rate (SAR) of RF energy in the body. Recent inflammatory articles in the British press were not substantiated by testing at ISO-accredited testing facilities at Motorola. Manufacturers of cell phones are required under FCC regulations to assure that their products meet the SAR limits on both hand-held and hands-free units. Further information can be obtained on the Internet at The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (FDA information) or Office of Engineering and Technology (FCC information).

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    COULD YOU PLEASE EXPLAIN, IF IT'S TRUE, THAT HANDS-FREE CELL PHONE CAR MICROPHONES RADIATE MORE THAN ANY OTHER INSTRUMENT USED WITH THESE PHONES?

  • IT MORE DANGEROUS STAY FOR ONE HOUR AT A TEN-METER DISTANCE FROM CELLULAR ANTENNA OR TALK INTO PHONE THE SAME AMOUNT OF TIME?

    Cellular phones are designed to be safe for both the user and anyone standing nearby. Cellular phones are actually small radios that transmit signals to and from base-station antennas located on towers or buildings in the nearby neighborhood. Cellular phones use low-power radio signals, even weaker than CB, police, or fire radios.

    The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) sets safety standards for human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic energy in the United States. Government agencies such as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and many states recognize and accept the ANSI RF safety standard. Also, the United States standard for RF energy is comparable to those set in other countries.

    Cellular phones and cellular-phone base stations have been shown to meet these RF safety standards. Safety standards for RF energy are threshold standards. Threshold standards define the level of RF energy above which there may be health or safety hazards and below which there have been no reported harmful effects. Unlike ionizing radiation, which many people believe to act cumulatively even at small exposure levels, RF energy at low levels is not considered a cumulative hazard. Therefore the consensus of scientific experts in this area is that RF exposure from cellular phones, meeting the threshold levels set in safety standards, is safe for all.

    The specific answer to the question is that cellular phone technology is safe for all. There is no danger posed by either handheld phone units or by base-station antennas. In both cases, the radio signals transmitted from the antennas are required to meet the ANSI safety standard for RF safety as embodied in FCC regulations governing this technology. For more information:

    The FCC has recently revised and reissued its Bulletin 56 on Questions and Answers about Biological Effects and Potential Hazards of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields.

    OSHA provides information and links to more sites on RF safety at its Web page, Radiofrequency/Microwave Radiation.

    Gary Zeman, ScD, CHP Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

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    IT MORE DANGEROUS STAY FOR ONE HOUR AT A TEN-METER DISTANCE FROM CELLULAR ANTENNA OR TALK INTO PHONE THE SAME AMOUNT OF TIME?

  • ARE THERE PRODUCTS AVAILABLE TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC THAT CAN BE PURCHASED PROTECT CELLULAR OR PORTABLE TELEPHONE USERS FROM RADIATION? IF SO, WHERE THESE FOUND?

    There are a number of opportunistic gadgets on the market to allegedly protect the user from hazards of cellular phones. You can search the Internet to find the latest, ranging from antenna shields to whole-body shielding materials. Most experts believe that these devices take advantage of customers' misunderstanding and unfounded fears to sell products with no real value. First of all, cell phones that operate within the guidelines established by national and international safety panels have never been shown to pose a health risk to the user (see answers to other questions on cell phone safety on this website). Secondly, placing any kind of shield over the antenna of a cell phone will in most cases cause it to increase its RF output as it attempts to compensate for signal loss in the shield and maintain a quality phone call. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration published an advisory on cell phones several years ago that said if you are concerned about risks of using a cell phone, then simply use it less. That is still good advice today. Gary Zeman, ScD, CHP Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Additional Information:



    Additional Information:

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    ARE THERE PRODUCTS AVAILABLE TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC THAT CAN BE PURCHASED PROTECT CELLULAR OR PORTABLE TELEPHONE USERS FROM RADIATION? IF SO, WHERE THESE FOUND?

  • WHAT EFFECTS OF CELL PHONES WILL THERE BE ON YOUNGER PEOPLE OPPOSED TO OLDER PEOPLE? THE AGE OR STATE DEVELOPMENT EFFECT DANGERS A PHONE?

    Physical size of the subject affects the fraction of the total radiofrequency energy that is absorbed in the body. To account for this known effect, the maximum permissible exposure standards for radiofrequency energy were set for the worst-case condition, that is assuming the body size for maximal absorption at a given frequency. Thus the maximum permissible exposure standards are fully protective for bodies of different sizes. For more detailed information, see the answers and the cited references to questions 79, 109, 694, and 893 under the Nonionizing Radiation section of the Health Physics Society Ask The Expert Web page. Gary H. Zeman, ScD, CHP

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    WHAT EFFECTS OF CELL PHONES WILL THERE BE ON YOUNGER PEOPLE OPPOSED TO OLDER PEOPLE? THE AGE OR STATE DEVELOPMENT EFFECT DANGERS A PHONE?

  • HOSPITALS DO NOT ALLOW CELL PHONE USE DUE TO POTENTIAL INTERFERENCE. LAST WEEKEND I WAS IN A HOSPITAL WHERE THE TOP OF BUILDING STUDDED WITH TOWER ANTENNAS. WHY IT THAT PHONES WOULD CAUSE INTERFERENCE, BUT ANTENNAS NOT?

    It's a question of signal strength. Interference has been observed only very close to transmitting antennas where there is strong signal strength. Interference has been observed in some medical electronics due to hand-held cell phones. Roof-top antennas are some distance away from any susceptible electronics. In addition to proximity, the directionality of the antennas is important. Most rooftop antennas have strong gain in the forward direction—towards the horizon—and very low gain in the vertical direction. Finally, there are layers of building materials shielding the interior areas from the rooftop antennas. Proximity, directionality, shielding—all go towards reducing the signal strength inside a building due to the antennas on the roof so that interference is not generally an issue. This does not mean that you cannot receive the signals from the roof top antennas inside the building; it simply means that the received signals are not strong enough to cause interference. Gary H. Zeman, ScD, CHP

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    HOSPITALS DO NOT ALLOW CELL PHONE USE DUE TO POTENTIAL INTERFERENCE. LAST WEEKEND I WAS IN A HOSPITAL WHERE THE TOP OF BUILDING STUDDED WITH TOWER ANTENNAS. WHY IT THAT PHONES WOULD CAUSE INTERFERENCE, BUT ANTENNAS NOT?

  • I'VE BUFFERED A PWM SIGNAL TO 0-10V ANALOG AND I WOULD LIKE USE THAT RUN YOUR 110V 2.2KW SPINDLE VFD. COULD YOU PLEASE DETAIL THE CORRECT WIRING VFD SETTINGS GET WORKING?

    This will depend on the VFD you have to identify the correct terminal. The terminal on the VFD will be labeled AI1 typically (Analog Input #1). You will also need to make sure to complete the PWM circuit using the GND terminal on the VFD.

    Additional Information:
    I have wired my 0-10V signal to the AI1 and GND terminals as suggested. I have also set the PD-01 and PD-02 settings to 1. Still nothing. Is there something else that I am missing?

    Additional Information:
    Thanks for the information. Can you let me know the model of the VFD that you have?

    Additional Information:
    VFD Model # YL600-2S-2K20

    Additional Information:
    Thanks. I will check our resources and documentation to see if there is another programming setting that needs to be changed.

    Additional Information:
    Does your VFD have a VI terminal?

    Additional Information:
    No, it does not. The terminals for this VFD are as follows (seperated by dashes "-").

    10V-AI1-AO2-PLC-DI5-DI3-DI1-COM
    AI2-GND-AO1-DI6-DI4-DI2-FM-24V

    Additional Information:
    Do you have a PD070 parameter?

    PD070 is the main Analog Input parameter.

    The options for that parameter is:
    0: 0-10V
    1: 0-5V
    2: 0-20mA
    3: 4-20mA
    4: 0-10V (4-20mA Stacked)
    5: XIA
    6: (VI+XIA)/2
    7: (3VA+XIA)/4
    8: (XIA_XIB)/2
    9: Max (XIA, XIB)
    10: Min (XIA, XIB)


    Additional Information:
    There is a PD-00 thru PD-09. PD-07 is currently set to 0.

    Additional Information:
    It appears that the manual I’m using “Titled YL600” is not the same as your unit. I will check our manuals and find the one that has only PD-00 to PD-09.

    Additional Information:
    For that VFD, the parameters are P0. The 0 may look like a D on the display.

    The parameters that need to be changed for the AI1 to work (Brackets [] around the correct selection):

    P0-01: First Motor Control Mode
    - 0: Sensorless Vector Control
    - 1: Flux Vector Control (FVC)
    - [2]: V/F Control

    P0-02: Options of Command Source
    - 0: Operation Panel Command Channel (LED will be off)
    - [1]: Terminal Command Channel (LED will be on)
    - 2: Communication Command Channel (LED will flicker)

    P0-03: Options of Principle Frequency Source X
    - 0: Digital Setting (Preset Frequency P0-08, UP/DOWN modifiable, no power-down memory)
    - 1: Digital Setting (Preset Frequency P0-08, UP/DOWN modifiable, with power-down memory)
    - [2]: AI1
    - 3: AI2
    - 4: AI3
    - 5: Pulse Setting (DI5)
    - 6: Multi Speed Instruction
    - 7: Simple PLC
    - 8: PID (Proportional Integral Derivative Control)
    - 9: Communication Given

    P0-11: Upper Limit Frequency Source
    - 0: P0-12 (Make sure the P0-12 parameter has the correct max frequency if used)
    - [1]: AI1
    - 2: AI2
    - 3: AI3
    - 4: Pulse Setting
    - 5: Communication Given

    P0-27: Command Source Bundle with Frequency Sources
    Single Digit: Options of Operation Panel Command Bundle with Frequency Sources
    - 0: No Bundling
    - 1: Digital Setting Frequency
    - [2]: AI1
    - 3: AI2
    - 4: AI3
    - 5: Pulse Setting (DI5)
    - 6: Multi Speed Instruction
    - 7: Simple PLC
    - 8: PID
    - 9: Communication Given
    Double Digit: Options of Terminal Command Bundle with Frequency Sources
    Hundred Place: Options of Communication Command Bundle with Frequency Sources
    Kilobit: Options of Automatic Operation Bundle with Frequency Sources

    P2-09: Upper Limit Source of Lower Torque Under Speed Control Mode
    - 0: Function Code P2-10 Setting
    - [1]: AI1
    - 2: AI2
    - 3: AI3
    - 4: Pulse Setting
    - 5: Communication Given
    - 6: MIN (Al1, Al2)
    - 7: MAX (Al1, Al2)
    - Maximum range for options 1-7, accords with P2-10

    If you elect to use a different AI#, then configure the parameters (P0-03, P0-11, P0-27 and P2-09) accordingly.

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    I'VE BUFFERED A PWM SIGNAL TO 0-10V ANALOG AND I WOULD LIKE USE THAT RUN YOUR 110V 2.2KW SPINDLE VFD. COULD YOU PLEASE DETAIL THE CORRECT WIRING VFD SETTINGS GET WORKING?

  • I'M SEARCHING FOR INFORMATION ABOUT THE HEALTH RISKS OF CELLULAR ANTENNAS' RADIATION. I NEED SCIENTIFIC (SCIENTIFIC PAPERS IN JOURNALS) THIS.

    Cellular telephone base stations are low-powered radiofrequency (RF) transmitters which operate at around 850-900 or 1800-1900 MHz (depending on the technology and region of the world). RF energy in a similar frequency range is used by many other technologies such as microwave ovens, UHF television, other communications systems, and radar. Health and safety issues related to RF energy have been studied for many years and there is an immense literature on the subject. Here are some sources that review health and safety issues related to RF energy from cellular base stations.

    A fact sheet published by the World Health Organization. There is also a Spanish version available on the WHO EMF website.
    Also see the IEEE EMBS Committee on Man and Radiation Report. Other reports are available through its website.
    The International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has published a lot on health and safety of RF energy. See its website. The ICNIRP published an article that describes the ICNIRP exposure limits for RF energy and their scientific rationale. See "Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300 GHz)," Health Physics Vol. 74, No 4, pp 494-522, 1998.
    A very detailed assessment of the scientific evidence related to health and safety of mobile telephones and base stations is in the recent (May 2000) report by the Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones (IEGMP) titled "Mobile Phones and Health" This study concludes "the balance of evidence to date suggests that exposures to RF radiation at levels below [international exposure guidelines] do not cause adverse health effects to the general population" but that "there may be biological effects at exposures below those guidelines." Public exposure to RF energy from cellular base stations is invariably far below the ICNIRP exposure guidelines.

    Kenneth R. Foster
    Professor, Bioengineering
    University of Pennsylvania

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    I'M SEARCHING FOR INFORMATION ABOUT THE HEALTH RISKS OF CELLULAR ANTENNAS' RADIATION. I NEED SCIENTIFIC (SCIENTIFIC PAPERS IN JOURNALS) THIS.

  • Hello, I'm wondering if you could make a larger laser cnc if someone asks for it? Something like 36" x 52". And how much would it be?

    We are developing a 4 foot by 8 foot (48" x 96") laser with 80 watts of power. If you need a laser at 36" x 52", you could use the 4'x8' laser and just build a shorter table. We will have this machine available in the latter portion of 2015.

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    Hello, I'm wondering if you could make a larger laser cnc if someone asks for it? Something like 36" x 52". And how much would it be?

  • I have a BlueChick that came with the 5-Axis Bread-Out Board V5 (parallel port), it has 3xCW230, how to configure it on LinuxCNC?

    Strictly to the point. Assuming:
    -You have a working linuxcnc install with a compatible parallel port
    -You have wired Bread-Out Board V5 to the motor drivers so you know which pins are for which signals(watch video tutorials for that on this site)
    -You have wired motors to motor drivers (watch video tutorials for that on this site)

    a)We need to know the base parallel port addres, for that you need to input on a linux terminal the command:

    #lspci -v

    You can scroll up and down the result with page up and page down. Look for a "Parallel Port..." line, the value you are looking for is the "I/O Ports at.." Write them down

    To get the Base Period Maximun Jitter, go to
    applications - cnc - Latency Test

    Now you should let that window running for a while, so it calculates an accurate jitter, go watch the tutorial videos for the connections between the Bread-Out Board and the motor controllers.

    After its been running for half an hour or so with the machine in use, write down the calculated jitter values, mine was Servo Thread - 39000

    Now close the Latency test dialog

    b)Go to applications - cnc - stepconfwizard
    "START" - Create a new config
    Check - Create Desktop Shortcut to config files
    Check - Create Desktop Shortcut to start linuxcnc with this config
    FORWARD

    c)"BASE INFORMATION"
    Fill in a Machine Name that suits you
    Bluechick is XYZ on inches
    Fill in the Base Period Maximun Jitter with the value obtained in "a)"

    FORWARD

    d)If you watched the tutorials on a) and b) you know the pin numbers for your signals.
    Parport Base Address you need to put the value obtained in a), mine was cf00
    Output pinout presets I used Sherline

    FORWARD
    FORWARD

    e)Axis X (chain and sprocket axis)
    Data for bluechick from build yourcnc
    Motor Steps per revolution 200
    Microstepping 64 (that if you followed tutorials, change if you have different)
    Pulley teeth 1 ; 1
    Leadscrew Pitch 0.444444 (that value comes from 1rev / (.25 in * 9 teeth))
    Maximun Velocity 10
    Maximun Acceleration 0.5
    Home location 0.0
    Table travel 0.0 to 34.0 (maybe you want to change this later)

    Now, you can do "Test this axis" and jog it (move it!) Try to position everything in the middle (you will be doing it axis by axis) and select
    "+ 0.5 in" Hit run, I used a pencil held at the gantry and paper to draw a line, then confirmed that the measurement was 0.5 in. Also tried with "+/- 0.5 in" and confirmed 1" measurement

    FORWARD when happy with your Axis X

    Repeat for Axix Y but the table travel is 0.0 to 12.0

    f)AXIS Z
    With data from buildyourcnc.com
    Motor Steps per rev 200
    Driver Microstepping 16 (as recommended for lead screw)
    Pulley teeth 1 ; 1
    Leadscrew Pitch 2
    Max Vel 2.5
    Max Accel 0.5

    Table travel 0.0 to 3.5

    Test, and FORWARD when happy

    g)After configured you can go to
    Applications - cnc - LinuxCNC, and there you go...




    Additional Information:
    ... Still think that there should be a tutorial for this part.

    Additional Information:
    oh¡ Forgot to tell, the config shortcut will be available on our Desktop, launch linuxCNC from there

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    I have a BlueChick that came with the 5-Axis Bread-Out Board V5 (parallel port), it has 3xCW230, how to configure it on LinuxCNC?

  • The relay doesn't have a A+ B - it has signal in god. 5v. / 0 S P. This has to go to my USB motion card wiring shows v+ goes to top of coil no number and comes out the bottom to #2 the relay I got from you is not that simple

    The relay is only used for devices like routers, spindles, coolant, mist, etc. The relay works like an automatic switch and will allow current to pass when the relay is engaged.

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    The relay doesn't have a A+ B - it has signal in god. 5v. / 0 S P. This has to go to my USB motion card wiring shows v+ goes to top of coil no number and comes out the bottom to #2 the relay I got from you is not that simple

  • WE'RE GLAD THAT CDC HAS MADE A UNIVERSAL INFLUENZA VACCINATION RECOMMENDATION TO VACCINATE EVERYONE 6 MONTHS AND OLDER. WOULD YOU TELL US HOW THIS CAME ABOUT?

    Prior to the 2010-11 vaccination season, only children ages 6 months through 18 years and adults age 50 years and older were universally recommended for vaccination; recommendations for adults ages 19 through 49 years were targeted to people with specific risk factors, although other adults could be vaccinated if they wanted protection. Collectively, these targeted risk groups made up 85% of the U.S. population. During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, additional risk groups were identified, such as obese individuals. The recommendation made by ACIP in February 2010 for universal vaccination simplifies previous recommendations, making it easier for healthcare providers to determine whom to vaccinate. The universal recommendation also makes it easier for patients to remember to get vaccinated every year.

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    WE'RE GLAD THAT CDC HAS MADE A UNIVERSAL INFLUENZA VACCINATION RECOMMENDATION TO VACCINATE EVERYONE 6 MONTHS AND OLDER. WOULD YOU TELL US HOW THIS CAME ABOUT?

  • I JUST RECEIVED A REPLACEMENT SPINDLE (2.2KW 220V). HOWEVER, WHEN ATTEMPTED IT USE THE NEW SPINDLE, WOULD ONLY REACH 1500 RPM. IS THERE SOMETHING NEED TO CHANGE ON CONTROLLER?

    VFD settings........
    1) To program the VFD, wire it up, plug it in. It takes several seconds to come to life.

    2) Push the PRGM button to enter programing mode.

    3 )Push the SET button. The display will read PD000.

    4) If you push the SET button again, it will display the present setting of PD000.

    5 )By pushing the up or down arrows, you can change the setting to whatever it needs to be. (This is just an example. PD000 needs no changes)

    6)Push the SET button again to lock in the setting of PD000 and advance to the next number, in this case, PD001.

    7) Push the SET button and it will display the present setting of PD001. Again, use the up and down arrows as necessary to set PD001, then push SET again to lock it in.

    Note: You can also scroll through the PD numbers with the up and down arrows.

    8) make all settings this way.

    9) by pushing the SET button you can scroll through the settings. First push of SET moves to the next number, second push displays it's setting, third push moves to the next PD number.

    Note- If you take too long, it will leave the programing mode on it's own. If it does, just push PRGM again to return to programing mode. Then press SET and continue what you were doing.

    10) Start with PD013. Set it to 1, which returns the settings to the factory settings.

    11) Then set PD005 to 400, PD004 to 400, and PD003 to 400 IN THAT ORDER.

    12) Then set the following: PD041=8, PD144=3000

    13) Set PD209=50

    That's it for the programing. You should get 24000RPM when you push RUN.

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    I JUST RECEIVED A REPLACEMENT SPINDLE (2.2KW 220V). HOWEVER, WHEN ATTEMPTED IT USE THE NEW SPINDLE, WOULD ONLY REACH 1500 RPM. IS THERE SOMETHING NEED TO CHANGE ON CONTROLLER?

  • I live in North Houston by Lake Conroe, Anyone around here have a 4x8 or larger machine that would not mind doing some simple cutting for me for a project?
  • Does Bobcad do CAM for lathe? Others are saying that Fusion360 free edition has better more efficient toolpaths. how does Bobcad compare to free Fusion360?

    BobCAD does have a program specifically for lathe.

    I would have to agree with the others, but more on the user interface rather than the tool paths. I haven't studied the tool paths to any extent to provide a comprehensive response, other than Fusion360 (AutoDesk) has a far more advanced and cutting edge track ahead of it.

    Tool paths for lathe are relatively simple (depending on the machine and number of tools you are using), so I can't imagine that the tool paths are much different.

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    Does Bobcad do CAM for lathe? Others are saying that Fusion360 free edition has better more efficient toolpaths. how does Bobcad compare to free Fusion360?

  • I have a greenbull 5x Long Z. I thought I read that I would get the CAD files to the machine when I purchased it? I want to make a couple modifications. Thanks!

    CAD drawings are not furnished with the purchase of a machine.

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    I have a greenbull 5x Long Z. I thought I read that I would get the CAD files to the machine when I purchased it? I want to make a couple modifications. Thanks!

  • IT POSSIBLE TO BUY THE CAD FILES FOR BLACK FOOT MACHINE, MECHANICAL PARTS AND ELECTRONICS BUT NOT WOODEN PARTS, SAVE SHIPPING COSTS? IN THAT CASE I WOULD INSTRUCT SOMEONE MILL ME.

    The files and hardware option for our machines has been removed from the site due to the following reasons:
    Difficulty for the end use of the files and the challenges (and time/money) on our side to assist in using these files.
    The abuse of these files over the internet.
    Ultimately may reduce the sales of machines keeping us in business.
    Sadly, this is what has come out of our company attempting to be open; however, the machines sold on this site is still far lower in price than the competition for the quality that we provide as we have a great desire to engender the cottage industry to fulfill their need for low end manufacturing. My sincere apologies if this causes any inconvenience.

    Additional Information:
    NO, is not possible, I can help with the shipping cost

    Additional Information:

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    IT POSSIBLE TO BUY THE CAD FILES FOR BLACK FOOT MACHINE, MECHANICAL PARTS AND ELECTRONICS BUT NOT WOODEN PARTS, SAVE SHIPPING COSTS? IN THAT CASE I WOULD INSTRUCT SOMEONE MILL ME.

  • HOW CAN I DETERMINE THE DOSE EQUIVALENT (MREM/HR, MREM/WK, MREM/YR) USING RAW DATA FROM A TLD (THERMOLUMINESCENT DOSIMETER) THAT WAS PLACED IN AN OFFICE FOR 22 DAYS?

    Assumption 1: The "raw data" of 24 mrem on the TLD is the total dose received by the TLD during the 22 days that the TLD was deployed in your office. This means that (1) any TLD reader background signal has been properly subtracted, (2) the signal accumulating in the TLD during any transport or storage time between preparation (annealing) and deployment in your office has been properly subtracted and, (3) the signal accumulating in the TLD during any transport or storage time between removal from your office and processing (reading) has been properly subtracted.

    With this assumption, the total dose rate in your office is (24 mrem)/(22 days), or 1.091 mrem per day. The reference background is given as 63 mrem per year which is (63 days)/(365.25 days per year) or 0.172 mrem per day. Thus the average net dose rate to the TLD during the 22 days was (1.091-0.172) = 0.919 mrem per day.

    Assumption 2: The net dose rate of 0.919 mrem per day in your office is attributable to the accelerator or other regulated sources under the control of your institution.

    Assumption 3: The office occupancy factor of 1/4 attributed in your question to NCRP Report 49 was misread from Table 4. The correct occupancy factor given in NCRP 49 for offices is 1.

    Assumption 4: You take 20 business days per year off for vacation and holidays. You work in your office for the remaining 240 days per year.

    Assumption 5: All of the accelerator shots occur while you are in your office.

    Assumption 6: The average net dose rate of 0.919 mrem per day determined during the 22 days of measurement continues for a year.

    Based on the data that you provided and my assumptions, your annual dose received in your office from the accelerator or other regulated sources at your institution is predicted to be (0.919 mrem per day) x (240 work days per year) = 220 mrem.

    Tom Gesell, PhD

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    HOW CAN I DETERMINE THE DOSE EQUIVALENT (MREM/HR, MREM/WK, MREM/YR) USING RAW DATA FROM A TLD (THERMOLUMINESCENT DOSIMETER) THAT WAS PLACED IN AN OFFICE FOR 22 DAYS?

  • AM STRUGGLING TO DOWNLOAD THE LINUX EMC2 FREEWARE. MY GET INTERRUPTED AT LAST MINUTE. IS THERE ANOTHER WAY OR PLACE WHERE COULD MAYBE TRY IT FROM?

    You should use the linuxcnc.org site and click on the download menu item. They have an EU mirror as the main download option.

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    AM STRUGGLING TO DOWNLOAD THE LINUX EMC2 FREEWARE. MY GET INTERRUPTED AT LAST MINUTE. IS THERE ANOTHER WAY OR PLACE WHERE COULD MAYBE TRY IT FROM?

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