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Question #: 294

Question: HOW LONG DOES IMMUNITY FROM INFLUENZA (FLU) VACCINE LAST?

Current Solution

Protection from influenza vaccine is thought to persist for a year or less because of waning antibody and because of changes in the circulating influenza virus from year to year.

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Other Possible Solutions to this Question

  • A FIVE-YEAR-OLD CHILD RECEIVED HER SECOND MMR WEEK AGO. HOW LONG SHOULD SHE WAIT BEFORE RECEIVING LIVE ATTENUATED INFLUENZA VACCINE (LAIV)?

    LAIV can be administered simultaneously with another live vaccine (e.g., MMR, varicella), but if not given at the same time, ACIP recommends waiting four weeks before administering the second live vaccine.

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    A FIVE-YEAR-OLD CHILD RECEIVED HER SECOND MMR WEEK AGO. HOW LONG SHOULD SHE WAIT BEFORE RECEIVING LIVE ATTENUATED INFLUENZA VACCINE (LAIV)?

  • HOW LATE IN THE SEASON CAN I VACCINATE MY PATIENTS WITH INFLUENZA VACCINE?

    Peak influenza activity does not generally occur until February. Providers are encouraged to continue vaccinating patients throughout the influenza season, including into the spring months (e.g., through May), as long as they have vaccine in the refrigerator and unvaccinated patients in their office.

    Because influenza occurs in many areas of the world during April through September, vaccine should be given to travelers who missed vaccination in the preceding fall and winter. Another late season use of vaccine is for children younger than age 9 years who were vaccinated for the first time in the current vaccination season but failed to get their second dose. For each of these situations, vaccine can be given through the month of June since injectable influenza vaccine customarily has a June 30 expiration date.

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    HOW LATE IN THE SEASON CAN I VACCINATE MY PATIENTS WITH INFLUENZA VACCINE?

  • WHY DO PEOPLE RECEIVED INFLUENZA VACCINE LAST YEAR STILL NEED TO GET VACCINATED THIS WHEN THE VIRUSES HAVEN'T CHANGED?

    Although the strains may sometimes be the same as in the previous year's vaccine, you should NOT use the previous season's vaccine you might still have in your refrigerator. Influenza vaccine distributed in the northern hemisphere expires on June 30 after each season; expired vaccine should NEVER be administered. Secondly, antibody titers that persons might have achieved from the previous year's vaccination will have waned and need to be boosted with a dose of the current year's vaccine.

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    WHY DO PEOPLE RECEIVED INFLUENZA VACCINE LAST YEAR STILL NEED TO GET VACCINATED THIS WHEN THE VIRUSES HAVEN'T CHANGED?

  • WHICH CHILDREN SHOULD RECEIVE INFLUENZA FLU VACCINE?

    ACIP recommends annual influenza vaccination for all children age 6 months and older who do not have a contraindication to the vaccine.

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    WHICH CHILDREN SHOULD RECEIVE INFLUENZA FLU VACCINE?

  • WHEN SHOULD INFLUENZA (THE FLU) VACCINE BE GIVEN?

    You can begin offering vaccine as soon as vaccine becomes available. Early vaccination of children younger than age 9 years who are first time vaccinees can be helpful in assuring routine second doses before the influenza season begins.

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    WHEN SHOULD INFLUENZA (THE FLU) VACCINE BE GIVEN?

  • INFLUENZA VACCINE RECOMMENDED FOR PREGNANT WOMEN?

    Yes. It is especially important to vaccinate pregnant women because of their increased risk for influenza-related complications. An increased risk of severe influenza infection was also observed in postpartum women (those delivered within the previous 2 weeks) during the 2009–2010 H1N1 pandemic. Vaccination can occur in any trimester, including the first. Only inactivated (injectable or TIV) vaccine should be given to pregnant women.

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    INFLUENZA VACCINE RECOMMENDED FOR PREGNANT WOMEN?

  • ARE WE SUPPOSED TO GIVE INFANTS PRESERVATIVE-FREE INFLUENZA VACCINE?

    No. CDC and ACIP express no preference for preservative-free vaccine for infants or any other group of vaccine recipients. See page 22 of the 2010–11 ACIP influenza recommendations: www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr5908.pdf.

    No scientific evidence exists that thimerosal in vaccines, including influenza vaccines, is a cause of adverse events, unless the patient has a systemic allergy to thimerosal. However, some states have enacted legislation that restricts the use of thimerosal-containing vaccines. Check with your state immunization manager to see if your state is one of them (www.immunize.org/coordinators).

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    ARE WE SUPPOSED TO GIVE INFANTS PRESERVATIVE-FREE INFLUENZA VACCINE?

  • WHAT THE RECOMMENDED INTERVAL FOR RECEIVING INFLUENZA VACCINE AFTER AN ALLERGY INJECTION?

    Vaccines can be administered at any time before or after administration of an "allergy injection."

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    WHAT THE RECOMMENDED INTERVAL FOR RECEIVING INFLUENZA VACCINE AFTER AN ALLERGY INJECTION?

  • HOW LONG DOES THE TUBE LAST?

    The average lifespan of a tube is 1000-1500 hours IF ran at a max of 16mA for most of it's life. It's life will go down if you run constantly at it's max rating.

    CO2 laser tubes also have a shelf life. So make sure to only buy a replacement tube close to when you plan to install it, keeping it on a shelf for the future will only compromise it's life span.

    To measure your amperage going through your system. You go from the negative line of the tube and run it THROUGH your multimeter/ammeter and back out to the laser PSU. This will give you your amp usage. It will not hurt your multimeter either. Just be sure your connections are very snug since 20,000V is liable to arc very easily if a connection comes loose.

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    what is life span of CO2 generator in videojet laser coding machineVJ3320

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    HOW LONG DOES THE TUBE LAST?

  • WHICH OF OUR PEDIATRIC PATIENTS WILL NEED 2 DOSES INFLUENZA VACCINE FOR THE 2011–12 VACCINATION SEASON?

    ACIP's influenza recommendations for children age 6 months through 8 years have changed for the 2011–12 season. According to the new algorithm, certain children need 2 doses of influenza vaccine this influenza season, separated by at least 4 weeks. Here is a summary:

    • Children age 6 months through 8 years who did not receive AT LEAST 1 dose of the 2010–11 vaccine should receive 2 doses, separated by at least 4 weeks, REGARDLESS of their previous influenza vaccination history.
    • Children age 6 months through 8 years whose influenza vaccination status from the previous season is not known should also receive 2 doses at least 4 weeks apart.
    • Children age 6 months through 8 years who received 1 dose of seasonal influenza vaccine during the 2010–11 season need ONLY 1 dose this season. This is because the vaccine strains are the same this season as last season.

    You may find this Immunization Action Coalition handout helpful: www.immunize.org/catg.d/p3093.pdf.

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    WHICH OF OUR PEDIATRIC PATIENTS WILL NEED 2 DOSES INFLUENZA VACCINE FOR THE 2011–12 VACCINATION SEASON?

  • A VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT (VIS) MANDATORY OR IT ONLY RECOMMENDED WHEN ADMINISTERING INFLUENZA VACCINE?

    As of January 1, 2006, the use of a VIS for influenza vaccine given to a child or an adult became mandatory under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Two VISs are published annually, one for LAIV and one for TIV. Each can be found at www.immunize.org/vis along with many translations.

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    A VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT (VIS) MANDATORY OR IT ONLY RECOMMENDED WHEN ADMINISTERING INFLUENZA VACCINE?

  • HOW SERIOUS A PROBLEM INFLUENZA (THE FLU) IN THE U.S.?

    Influenza is the most frequent cause of death from a vaccine-preventable disease in the United States. From 1990 through 1999, an average of approximately 36,000 influenza-associated pulmonary and circulatory deaths occurred during each influenza season. In addition to fatalities, seasonal influenza is also responsible for more than 200,000 hospitalizations per year. Rates of infection from seasonal influenza are highest among children, but the risks for complications, hospitalizations, and deaths are higher among adults ages 65 and older, children younger than 5 years, and people of any age who have medical conditions that place them at increased risk for complications from influenza.

    A novel H1N1 virus was first detected in March of 2009 and quickly spread to pandemic levels. In the U.S., it is estimated that approximately 43-89 million persons became ill with 2009 pandemic H1N1 from April 2009 to April 2010. The virus also resulted in significant hospitalizations and deaths among children, adults 19-65 years, obese persons, and pregnant and post-partum women.

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    HOW SERIOUS A PROBLEM INFLUENZA (THE FLU) IN THE U.S.?

  • HOW SERIOUS A PROBLEM INFLUENZA IN THE U.S.?

    Influenza is the most frequent cause of death from a vaccine-preventable disease in the United States. From 1990 through 1999, an average of approximately 36,000 influenza-associated pulmonary and circulatory deaths occurred during each influenza season. In addition to fatalities, seasonal influenza is also responsible for more than 200,000 hospitalizations per year. Rates of infection from seasonal influenza are highest among children, but the risks for complications, hospitalizations, and deaths are higher among adults ages 65 and older, children younger than 5 years, and people of any age who have medical conditions that place them at increased risk for complications from influenza.

    A novel H1N1 virus was first detected in March of 2009 and quickly spread to pandemic levels. In the U.S., it is estimated that approximately 43-89 million persons became ill with 2009 pandemic H1N1 from April 2009 to April 2010. The virus also resulted in significant hospitalizations and deaths among children, adults 19-65 years, obese persons, and pregnant and post-partum women.

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    HOW SERIOUS A PROBLEM INFLUENZA IN THE U.S.?

  • WE'VE HEARD THAT ACIP HAS LIMITED THE USE OF ONE INFLUENZA VACCINE PRODUCTS FOR CHILDREN BEGINNING WITH 2010-11 VACCINATION SEASON. TRUE?

    Yes. You are referring to Afluria, which is manufactured in Australia by CSL Laboratories for the U.S. market. CSL's 2010 Southern Hemisphere influenza vaccine (Fluvax and Fluvax Junior) has been associated with increased post-marketing reports of fever and febrile seizures in children predominantly younger than age 5 years as compared to previous years. For this reason, on August 5, 2010, ACIP recommended that Afluria, 0.5 mL, licensed for use in people age 36 months and older, not be used in children younger than age 9 years. ACIP further recommended that Afluria could be administered to children ages 5 through 8 years who are at high risk for influenza complications if there is no other age-appropriate TIV available, after risks and benefits of using this vaccine in this age group have been discussed with the parent or guardian. The vaccine should not be given to children younger than age 5 years. For detailed information, go to www.cdc.gov/media/pressrel/2010/s100806.htm.

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    WE'VE HEARD THAT ACIP HAS LIMITED THE USE OF ONE INFLUENZA VACCINE PRODUCTS FOR CHILDREN BEGINNING WITH 2010-11 VACCINATION SEASON. TRUE?

  • WE HAVE NOTICED THAT CDC RECOMMENDS BEGIN VACCINATING WITH SEASONAL INFLUENZA VACCINE AS EARLY SEPTEMBER OR EVEN EARLIER. DOES PROTECTION FROM DECLINE WANE WITHIN 3 4 MONTHS OF VACCINATION? SHOULD I WAIT UNTIL OCTOBER NOVEMBER TO VACCINATE MY ELDERLY MEDICALLY FRAIL PATIENTS?

    CDC recommends that seasonal influenza vaccine be administered to all age groups as soon as it becomes available. Antibody to seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine declines in the months following vaccination. However, antibody level at a point several months after vaccination does not necessarily correlate with clinical vaccine effectiveness. There are no studies that compare vaccine effectiveness according to the month when the vaccination was given. The authors of a review on antibody declines among the elderly after vaccination reported, "In conclusion, we found no compelling evidence for more rapid decline of the influenza vaccine-induced antibody response in the elderly, compared with young adults, or evidence that seroprotection is lost at 4 months if it has been initially achieved after immunization." (See Skowronski, et al., Rapid Decline of Influenza Vaccine-Induced Antibody in the Elderly: Is it Real, or Is It Relevant? Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008;197:490-502).In addition, there is a lack of evidence for late-season outbreaks among vaccinated persons that can be attributed to waning immunity.

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    WE HAVE NOTICED THAT CDC RECOMMENDS BEGIN VACCINATING WITH SEASONAL INFLUENZA VACCINE AS EARLY SEPTEMBER OR EVEN EARLIER. DOES PROTECTION FROM DECLINE WANE WITHIN 3 4 MONTHS OF VACCINATION? SHOULD I WAIT UNTIL OCTOBER NOVEMBER TO VACCINATE MY ELDERLY MEDICALLY FRAIL PATIENTS?

  • SOME OF MY PATIENTS REFUSE INFLUENZA VACCINATION BECAUSE THEY INSIST "GOT THE FLU" AFTER RECEIVING INJECTABLE VACCINE IN PAST. WHAT CAN I TELL THEM?

    There are several reasons why this misconception persists: (1) Less than 1% of people who are vaccinated with the injectable vaccine develop flu-like symptoms, such as mild fever and muscle aches, after vaccination. These side effects are not the same as having influenza, but people confuse the symptoms. (2) Protective immunity doesn't develop until 1–2 weeks after vaccination. Some people who get vaccinated later in the season (December or later) may get influenza shortly afterward. These late vaccinees develop influenza because they were exposed to someone with the virus before they became immune. It is not the result of the vaccination. (3) To many people "the flu" is any illness with fever and cold symptoms. If they get any viral illness, they may blame it on the flu shot or think they got "the flu" despite being vaccinated. Influenza vaccine only protects against certain influenza viruses, not all viruses. (4) The influenza vaccine is not 100% effective, especially in older persons. For more information on this topic, go to: www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/vaccination/effectivenessqa.htm

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    SOME OF MY PATIENTS REFUSE INFLUENZA VACCINATION BECAUSE THEY INSIST "GOT THE FLU" AFTER RECEIVING INJECTABLE VACCINE IN PAST. WHAT CAN I TELL THEM?

  • HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO SHIP

    Unfortunately I am not able to give an estimate of shipping time. This is because there are multiple shipping options, Some of them cost more than others, but ensure the package arrives in a certain number of days. Others do not give a number of days, and many factors could change the length of shipping time, such as weather, or busy season. It would be best to choose an option you are comfortable with the price of, and then Google search the typical times it takes for that option to get to you, or call the shipping company and request that estimated time from them.

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    HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO SHIP

  • DO YOU HAVE BLACKTOE MACHINES WITH TABLES READY TO GO OR HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE MAKE ONE?

    Yes, we have the optional table for the blackToe, but we need to fabricate it, which only takes one day. We generally reserve one week for the total fabrication and packing of all parts.

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    DO YOU HAVE BLACKTOE MACHINES WITH TABLES READY TO GO OR HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE MAKE ONE?

  • RECOMMENDED TO GET VACCINATED AGAINST INFLUENZA (THE FLU)?

    Beginning with the 2010-11 vaccination season, ACIP recommends annual vaccination for all people ages 6 months and older who do not have a contraindication to the vaccine.

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    RECOMMENDED TO GET VACCINATED AGAINST INFLUENZA (THE FLU)?

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