### Question #: 554

Question:
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WHAT IS THE FORMULA TO DETERMINE STEPS PER INCH OR RESOLUTION FOR EACH AXIS?
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**The formula and calculation is a starting point to get into the area of steps per inch. You will then need to use the mach3 calibration utility to get the exact steps per inch.
Formula:
step per inch = (motor steps * microstepping) / (travel at one turn of the motor in inches)
if microstepping is set at 16 (1/16 on the driver) then and you are using a sprocket and chain with a pitch of .25 inches and 12 teeth on the drive sprocket
= (200 * 16) / (12 * .25)
= 3200 / 3
= 1066.666 steps per inch
For lead screw that has a travel of .5 inches at one turn like the 5 start 1/2 inch lead screw and using 4 microsteps per step (1/4):
= (200 * 4) / (.5)
= 800 / .5
= 1600 steps per inch
Remember to use the mach3 calibration wizard and double check the driver microstep setting.Additional Information:**

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### Other Possible Solutions to this Question

**What is each axis' resolution for the blueChick in mm or µm?**The resolution for any of our machines is based on the driver microsetting setting and the machanical parts used for each axis.

For example:

The blueChick uses 9 tooth drive sprockets for the x and y axes.

To determine resolution use this formula:

Resolution = steps / inch or the travel in steps for one revolution of the drive sprocket

Steps = (motor steps) * (driver microsteps) or natural motor steps * microstepping setting on the driver

Inches = t(ooth coun)t *( tooth pitch) or the number of teeth for the drive sprocket

Resolution = ((motor steps) * (microsteps)) / (teeth * pitch)

In this example, the microsteps is 16 and the pitch is .25 inches

= (200 * 16) / (9 * .25")

= 3200 / 2.25"

= 1422.222 steps per inch

For the z axis of the blueChick, the resolution is typically based on 4 micro steps and the travel for one turn of the motor is 1/2". Therefore:

Resolution = (200 * 4) / .5"

= 800 / .5"

= 1600 steps per inch**Click the link to respond:**

What is each axis' resolution for the blueChick in mm or µm?**how do I determine the steps per inch for the motors?**blueChick:

X-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Y-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Z-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

blackToe:

X-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Y-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Z-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

blackFoot:

X-axis

“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100 (“0”=down, “1”=up)

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Y-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Z-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

greenBull:

X-axis

“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”

Set to 5.43A, 1/16 Microstep

Dipswitches: 01100110 (“0”=down, “1”=up)

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Y-axis

“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”

Set to 5.43A, 1/16 Microstep

Dipswitches: 01100110

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Z-axis

“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”

Set to 5.43A, 1/4 Microstep

Dipswitches: 01100100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Scratch-Build / Book-Build Kit:

X-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100 (“0”=down, “1”=up)

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Y-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Z-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Additional Information:

Additional Information:

Scratch built/book CNC with NEMA 34 motors and CW8060 microstep driver

Additional Information:**Click the link to respond:**

how do I determine the steps per inch for the motors?**I need to determine steps/inch mach3 setup information for my motors and drivers.**blueChick:

X-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Y-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Z-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

blackToe:

X-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Y-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Z-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

blackFoot:

X-axis

“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100 (“0”=down, “1”=up)

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Y-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Z-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

greenBull:

X-axis

“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”

Set to 5.43A, 1/16 Microstep

Dipswitches: 01100110 (“0”=down, “1”=up)

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Y-axis

“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”

Set to 5.43A, 1/16 Microstep

Dipswitches: 01100110

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Z-axis

“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”

Set to 5.43A, 1/4 Microstep

Dipswitches: 01100100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Scratch-Build / Book-Build Kit:

X-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100 (“0”=down, “1”=up)

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Y-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Z-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Additional Information:

Additional Information:

Scratch built/book CNC with NEMA 34 motors and CW8060 microstep driver

Additional Information:**Click the link to respond:**

I need to determine steps/inch mach3 setup information for my motors and drivers.**What is the best way to determine speeds and feeds for machine and bit longevity?**The speeds and feeds are generally based on the amount of flutes that are being used per pass and how hot the end mill is getting when milling. You want to use as much of the flutes as possible on single cuts. Make the deepest cuts you can to increase the life of the tool. For instance, if a tool that is 1 inch in cut length and the depth per pass is 1/4", then only that 1/4" is being used for the cutting. The 1/4" tip of that tool will wear faster.

Make sure the feedrate is as fast as possible without a cost to the edge finish. This will keep the end mill cool since there will be minimal friction as you are always cutting into fresh cooler material.

Use the end mill manufacturer's chip load for the tool to determine the starting feed rate.

Feedrate (IPM - Inches/Min) = Spindle RPM x # of Flutes x Chip Load

See each end mill for the chip load value.

If your machine cannot achieve these feed rates, reduce the spindle RPM using this formula:

Speed (RPM) = Feed Rate (IPM) / (# of Flutes x Chip Load)**Click the link to respond:**

What is the best way to determine speeds and feeds for machine and bit longevity?**While motor tuning what are the recommended steps per inch, velocity, and acceleration for the GreenBull CNC?**In the customer service live, just enter "motor tuning" and it will give you a list of all the recommended or default settings for our machines. However the acceleration and velocity for the greenBull(other machines) will be an actual determination on your trials. You will want the highest possible acceleration and velocity without the motors stalling, so you can do increments of ten to be on the safe side, if it is too slow try increments of 25.

The steps per inch is dependent on the microstepping:

Steps/Inch for the x and y

Steps = 200 motor steps per revolution x 16 microsteps = 3200 steps

Inches = sprocket number of teeth x pitch of the sprocket = 14 x .25" = 3.5 inches

steps/inch = 3200 / 3.5 = 914.28

This is really a starting point. You will then need to use the mach3 calibration function to get the perfect steps/inch value. Use as long a measurement as possible when calibrating.

Velocity:

Start with a value of 1000 ipm. Increase this value with a relatively low acceleration at about 10. You will notice at a particular velocity that it will stall. This is your stall velocity. I would take the stall velocity and reduce it by about 30% to 50% which should give you a good final safe velocity.

Acceleration:

Once the velocity is found, raise the acceleration until it start to stall at a low velocity. Reduce the acceleration by about the same percentage to stick with a safe acceleration.

The acceleration is mostly dependent on torque (current) and the top speed is dependent on the amount of voltage.

Give some tests with all of the axes running at the same time. If you notice and stalling, reduce velocities and acceleration depending on when the stall happens (top end, or acceleration curve).

X-axis

“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”

Set to 5.43A, 1/16 Microstep

Dipswitches: 01100110 (“0”=down, “1”=up)

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Y-axis

“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”

Set to 5.43A, 1/16 Microstep

Dipswitches: 01100110

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Z-axis

“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”

Set to 5.43A, 1/4 Microstep

Dipswitches: 01100100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Additional Information:

Additional Information:

Additional Information:

4th axis

Additional Information:**Click the link to respond:**

While motor tuning what are the recommended steps per inch, velocity, and acceleration for the GreenBull CNC?**stepper motor steps per inch formula**The formula and calculation is a starting point to get into the area of steps per inch. You will then need to use the mach3 calibration utility to get the exact steps per inch.

Formula:

step per inch = (motor steps * microstepping) / (travel at one turn of the motor in inches)

if microstepping is set at 16 (1/16 on the driver) then and you are using a sprocket and chain with a pitch of .25 inches and 12 teeth on the drive sprocket

= (200 * 16) / (12 * .25)

= 3200 / 3

= 1066.666 steps per inch

For lead screw that has a travel of .5 inches at one turn like the 5 start 1/2 inch lead screw and using 4 microsteps per step (1/4):

= (200 * 4) / (.5)

= 800 / .5

= 1600 steps per inch

Remember to use the mach3 calibration wizard and double check the driver microstep setting.

Additional Information:**Click the link to respond:**

stepper motor steps per inch formula**Motor tuning. While motor tuning what are the recommended steps per inch, velocity, and acceleration for the BlackFoot CNC?**These are the recommend values(default) for our blackFoot CNC machine, the acceleration and velocity can be adjusted as high as the motor can rotate without stalling! Suggested increment's will be by 10's.

blackFoot:

X-axis

“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 5.43A

Dipswitches: 01100110 (“0”=down, “1”=up)

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in, Velocity 400.02, Acceleration 4

Y-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in, Velocity 400.02, Acceleration 4

Z-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in, Velocity 79.98, Acceleration 5

Additional Information:

how can we tuning the CNC motor**Click the link to respond:**

Motor tuning. While motor tuning what are the recommended steps per inch, velocity, and acceleration for the BlackFoot CNC?**With a 1/2 lead screw what is the optimal steps for the stepper motor driver 1/16, 1/8, 1/4 etc**We typically use a 1/4 microstepping for lead screws, but you want to determine the microstepping only after you determine what resolution you want on that axis of the machine.

The formula:

Resolution is steps per inch or steps per milimeter

I will go over this using steps/inch:

steps = motor steps x driver microstepping

inch = the amount of travel with one full stepper motor rotation

In the case of our 1/2" 5 start 10 TPI lead screw, the axis will travel .5 inches with one stepper motor rotation.

Let's use 1/4 microstepping (4 microsteps for each stepper motor step)

Therefore:

(200 steps x 4) / .5 inches =

800 steps / .5 inches =

1600 steps/inch

Now let's use 1/2 microstepping (2 mistrosteps)

(200 steps x 2) / .5 inches =

400 steps / .5 inches =

800 steps/inch

Remember that increasing microsteps, the torque is also reduced, but the smoothness from the motor is increased.**Click the link to respond:**

With a 1/2 lead screw what is the optimal steps for the stepper motor driver 1/16, 1/8, 1/4 etc**Hi, I need the lead screw and bearings for x/y/z axis of the CNC. What is the length of "1/2" Lead Screw per inch (Steel)"?**Depending on the size of your CNC machine, it will vary the length required for your application.

Please verify the CNC machine, and we can go into detail on the specific lengths or methods for the linear guide mechanics.

We sell our ACME Screw (1/2" per inch), also our longest length of ACME Screw is 76-3/4".**Click the link to respond:**

Hi, I need the lead screw and bearings for x/y/z axis of the CNC. What is the length of "1/2" Lead Screw per inch (Steel)"?**HOW DO DETERMINE THE STEPS PER INCH**blueChick:

X-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Y-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Z-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

blackToe:

X-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Y-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Z-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

blackFoot:

X-axis

“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100 (“0”=down, “1”=up)

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Y-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 11001100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Z-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

greenBull:

X-axis

“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”

Set to 5.43A, 1/16 Microstep

Dipswitches: 01100110 (“0”=down, “1”=up)

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Y-axis

“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”

Set to 5.43A, 1/16 Microstep

Dipswitches: 01100110

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Z-axis

“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”

Set to 5.43A, 1/4 Microstep

Dipswitches: 01100100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Scratch-Build / Book-Build Kit:

X-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100 (“0”=down, “1”=up)

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Y-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Z-axis

“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”

Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A

Dipswitches: 10101100

Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Additional Information:

Additional Information:

Scratch built/book CNC with NEMA 34 motors and CW8060 microstep driver

Additional Information:**Click the link to respond:**

HOW DO DETERMINE THE STEPS PER INCH**for 2" Strip Brush per inch what is the dimensions (Width, High and thickness)**The strip brush overall height is 2 inches, of which 3/16 inch is backing. The strip is 1/4 inch wide. The diameter of the bristles is 0.01 inch.

**Click the link to respond:**

for 2" Strip Brush per inch what is the dimensions (Width, High and thickness)**What steppers are required for the X, Y, and Z axis of the scratch build kit? Do they all need to be the same rating?**The required motors are the 425 oz-in stepping motors, would be the required motors to run the machine efficiently.

**Click the link to respond:**

What steppers are required for the X, Y, and Z axis of the scratch build kit? Do they all need to be the same rating?**What is the dot resolution (size) of the BlackTooth laser?**The dot resolution of the blackTooth is a combination of two specifications of the machine:

- The steps/inch (or steps/mm) which is the resolution but not the dot size

- The size of the actual dot, which is not specifically related to the resolution.

The steps per or resolution can actually be a range, since the driver microstepping can be modified.

A simple formula can be used to determine the resolution:

step per inch = (motor steps * microstepping) / (travel at one turn of the motor in inches)

if microstepping is set at 16 (1/16 on the driver) and you are using a pulley that has a pitch of .08 inches and 20 teeth on the drive sprocket

= (200 steps * 16 microsteps) / (20 teeth * .08 inches)

= 3200 steps / 1.6 inches

= 2000 steps per inch

To increase the resolution, just increase the microsteps on the driver.

The actual dot size will depend on the lens you are using, the material being lased, the time period that the laser energy is applied to the material, and the focal height of the lens to the work surface material. The energy from the laser will converge to a point and create a dot on the surface (which is different than the kerf of the laser cut into the material).

The dot will appear in different sizes depending on the material because, say wood, will burn causing a dot that burns the fibers of the wood and spreads a bit. The dot lased on the surface of a plastic, say Plexiglas, the dot will be smaller because the energy is absorbed only at that point, but since Plexiglas is a thermoplastic, a bit of the energy will melt the dot edges depending on the time frame (period) that the energy is applied to the surface.

The focus of the laser energy from the lens looks like a cone converging to a point, then diverges outward after that point. Depending on the distance from the lens to the surface of the material, the dot will be bigger or smaller. You want to find focal point (where the energy is focused into a point). You can use the technique where you lay a material on a slope and lase that material along the slope to find the sweet spot (dot) and that will be your smallest dot, or kerf location. Remember that the kerf will widen or narrow within the material thickness depending on the focal length lens specification (the cone will be shorter or longer depending on the lens focal length).**Click the link to respond:**

What is the dot resolution (size) of the BlackTooth laser?**What is the replacement Z axis motor for a SM60HT86-2008BF-U2?**This is a NEMA 24 motor. It could be dual shaft or single shaft, so be sure to choose correctly. Holding torque is generally measured in Nm globally, and translated to ounces/inch in the United States. Our NEMA 24 motors are rated at 425 oz/in holding torque.

**Click the link to respond:**

What is the replacement Z axis motor for a SM60HT86-2008BF-U2?**what is the wiring coler and pin # for the whiteant extruder stepper motor**For our extruder motor wire color and pin would be Red(A), Yellow(C), Gray(B), Green(D). The 2 x 3 (6) pin connectors on our 3D mainboard, are connectors for motor drivers. Pin #1 is 12v, Pin #2 s ground, Pin #3 is step, Pin #4 is direction, Pin #5 is enable and, Pin #6 is 5v.

**Click the link to respond:**

what is the wiring coler and pin # for the whiteant extruder stepper motor**What determines how fast the stepping motors will spin?**The amount of voltage that is used to power the motors will generally determine the top RPM of the stepping motors. As you increase the voltage, the time constant is reduced in the process of current flowing through the coils of the motor. The faster the current can be drawn through the coils, the faster the motor will spin.

**Click the link to respond:**

What determines how fast the stepping motors will spin?**What is your shipping costs for the greenLean CNC machine to Perth Western Australia**You can determine if the country is serviceable by:

- selecting the items you want to purchase on the website

- go to the cart (shopping cart top left of any webpage)

- log in, or register

- Enter the address and click on calculate shipping.

The webpage will return the direct rates and whether your area is serviced or not. Feel free to enter any address as long as you are able to receive the package from that address.

The shipping times are determined by the service you select in the shopping cart. If a machine is purchased, we generally have a one week lead time unless otherwise stated in the description of the machine's product page.**Click the link to respond:**

What is your shipping costs for the greenLean CNC machine to Perth Western Australia**For tuning the motors in mach 3 should I be running a gcode or is keyboard jogging enough to determine the stall rates**It seems to be getting some kind of interference or a short within the wiring or communication, try jogging the motors in the software without anything wired to the board. Then add one motor at a time to see if there is a short within your wiring or a faulty driver/motor.

If the USB breakout board continues to move the x-axis with no motors or driver wired to it, please email customerservice@buildyourcnc.com for a replacement or further troubleshooting.**Click the link to respond:**

For tuning the motors in mach 3 should I be running a gcode or is keyboard jogging enough to determine the stall rates**For tuning the motors in mach 3 should I be running a gcode or is keyboard jogging enough to determine the stall rates**Keyboard jogging will give you a good start at motor tuning since going from a stop to rapid travel speed is the quickest the machine will be required to accelerate. However, best practice is to also run test files and actually cut the type of materials you expect to deal with to test machine performance under load and make any fine adjustments needed for maximum performance.

**Click the link to respond:**

For tuning the motors in mach 3 should I be running a gcode or is keyboard jogging enough to determine the stall rates