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Question #: 6927

Question: What would I need to purchase to increase the Z axis stepper motor up one size from the one that comes with the Blacktoe 4.1 with computer? I can't get Patrick to answer e-mails, so I'll try here.

Current Solution

Thanks for the question. The blackToe z-axis motor is a NEMA 24 425 oz-in stepping motor and the next step up is a NEMA 34 651 oz-in motor located here: https://buildyourcnc.com/item/electronicsAndMotors-nema34-651ozin


To make it work on the blackToe CNC machine, you would need to fabricate a new mount and the top bearing mount, or request us to fabricate it for you by calling the office.

Curious, why the need to increase the size? If the motor is having a difficult time, there may be a deeper mechanical issue at play. One issue you may have is that the bearings are needing shim washers to separate the inner and outer races. If the two races are rubbing against the coupling or collar, the bearing may be difficult to turn under the weight of the assembly. If there is too much friction between the anti-backlash nut and the lead screw, you can add some 2-in-1 oil, or other similar lubricant.

Thank you for using our Customer Service Live. Patrick often answers these questions. We prefer this system over email as these questions will benefit others.

If you have additional questions or need more explanation relating to this question, please add to this answer.

User response:
I have added the shim washer between the bearing and coupling and have always used a light oil on the lead screw. I halved the acceleration on the Z-axis. Then I re-ran a topo that took two hours on the finish pass. No change in my results - the Z-axis slowly dropped until when the program finished and everything went back to the start point, the Z axis was lower by 0.378 inches than when it started at 0.800 above the surface.

Any suggestions would be appreciated. Maybe I need more shim washers in the assembly between all the bearing surfaces?

buildyourcnc response:
Before you add a larger motor, check these first:

1. take the motor off by remove only the motor screws and removing the motor as well as the coupling half that is secured to the motor shaft.

2. Turn the lead screw by hand. This will still be connected to the z-axis assembly by the anti-backlash nut, so you will feel the resistance in the upward motion of the z-axis. Does it feel relatively easy to turn, or very difficult?

3. If the resistance is relatively normal with respect to gravity and normal friction between the anti-backlash nut and the screw, then you may want to half the velocity as well on the z-axis motor tuning, and even reduce the acceleration a bit more. Doing topographical layouts should not require fast z-axis motor travel. Be careful not to lower the z-axis acceleration if you are using constant velocity as this can make the topo "too smooth" where there may be features such as cliffs present. If you need to lower acceleration drastically, then use exact stop rather than constant velocity.

Another gotcha that may be causing this phenomenon is motor cable/wire chafing. We had this same issue crop up where two wires were shorting only at a specific position because the wires moved just enough to cause these wires to connect. This was caused by a zip tie. Zip ties have a very sharp edge that can cut the insulation of the wire. A hint of this problem is if this phenomenon is only present after working successfully with the machine for a greater period of time.

Use response:
I bought a new lead screw, bearings, antibacklash nut, and shim washers (WHICH NEED TO BE IN YOUR ONLINE CATALOG) and installed them. (Like another commentor on this site, my lead screw wouldn't go through the bearings. Simple solution was to chuck it into my drill press and 400 grit smooth it until a snug fit was had. Lowest RPM.)

Anyhow, I ran another Topo yesterday and got the same results. The wires are not frayed, the acceleration has been halved, the speed reduced to a crawl. When testing manually, twisting the Z axis up was very hard to do compared to lowering it.

I have thought about a counterbalance of some type, but that introduces lots of other problems.

Anything you can thing of will certainly help.

I can send pictures, etc.

Thanks!

Buildyourcnc response
What router/spindle do you have installed?

User response:
The one you sold me - 110 V, 1.5KW water cooled.

User response:
This problem of the z axis drift has been evident since I first started using the machine a couple of years ago. Lithophanes, stipples, topographic and other heavy z axis users have been particularly bad. It is to the point that I am turning away opportunities for lack of capability.

Buildyourcnc response:
I think all options may be exhausted. We will design a new mount that holds a large motor. Please give us a call so we can arrange to send that out to you.

We just determined that the existing mount need to be adjusted by about one millimeter for the main mounting hoes for the larger NEMA 34 motor to fit. The overall mount will look the same but the outside hole spacing will be adjusted by a very small amount to match the larger motor mounting holes. This new adjustment will be included with all new machines. We will send you the new mount (consisting of two structural pieces) and the longer screws that will be needed to extend to fit the motor frame thickness.

Additional Information:


Additional Information:
They didn't send the longer screws, nor the new required coupling, but I finally got it together and it works just fine. It returns to precise Z zero every time.

But the motor runs pretty hot because I think it should be run at a higher voltage than the current power supply provides.

Any new sales of Blacktoe 4.1 should include this modification.

Cheers.

Respond:

Other Possible Solutions to this Question

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  • What else to I need to purchase along with the "3 Axis Electronics Combo w/ USB Interface Board" to get the electronics up and running? (software, 5V power supply, 4-conductor wire, etc.)

    Here is a list of the parts needed to get the electronics combo functioning (parallel or USB interface options):

    - 22 or 24 gauge stranded hookup wire to connect all of the drivers to the USB or parallel interface (terminal to terminal connections),
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    - a power cable (extension cord) to connect from the power outlet to the power supply,
    - 4 conductor cable to connect the drivers to the stepper motors,
    - a USB cable to connect from the computer to the USB interface (or for power to the parallel interface),
    - for the parallel interface, a parallel cable is needed (male to male db-25),
    - a computer (for parallel interface, the computer will need a parallel port and if the computer does not contain a parallel interface, the motherboard may have a header for it, or you can purchase a parallel adapter to plug into the motherboard, very inexpensive),
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    5v power supply is not needed. The 5 volts signal level power is derived from the computer through USB on both types of interfaces.

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    This gear should work with this motor. The shaft on the 651ozin motor is 3/8"

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    I am working with a Spur gear that has a 15 tooth 3/8 bore/ 3/8 wide....is the 651ozin stepper motor compatible with this or do I need to get a different motor

  • My X-axis on the Blacktoe cannot run above ~40 ipm. I've checked all connections,tensions, sprocket locks, etc. All is fine. Can the 425 OZ stepping motor be replaced with a bigger motor, or could a second 425 OZ stepper be added to increase torque?

    it is possible to install 2 motors on a single axis but you will require another driver and motor, but wire it directly to the same pins on your breakout board. Also the orientation of your motor since it is opposite side of the original so getting it to move accordingly to the original motor it will need to be orientated correctly. The slight shift could be the cause of the rod not being completely flat where the set screws are suppose to tighten the sprocket to the rod, so sanding it to a flatter surface might fix the shift in directions.
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    My X-axis on the Blacktoe cannot run above ~40 ipm. I've checked all connections,tensions, sprocket locks, etc. All is fine. Can the 425 OZ stepping motor be replaced with a bigger motor, or could a second 425 OZ stepper be added to increase torque?

  • I bought a Blacktoe 2 x 8 three years ago and have always had a problem with the Zid axis. No matter how tightly I've calibrated the axis it always cuts to deep. Can I put a larger Stepper motor on Z-axis using the same motion electronics that came with the original machine.

    Modifying the Z-axis to accommodate a larger motor will be a worth while task and is possible, however we have not calibrated the z-axis therefore using the 1600 Steps-per inch in the motor tuning on our machine in our shop. We have not noticed any significant depth increments from not calibrating the z-axis but only from zeroing the z axis too close to the material. Also in your design did you specify the actual depth and the length of tool (end mill/ bit) that you are using?

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    I bought a Blacktoe 2 x 8 three years ago and have always had a problem with the Zid axis. No matter how tightly I've calibrated the axis it always cuts to deep. Can I put a larger Stepper motor on Z-axis using the same motion electronics that came with the original machine.

  • How can I decrease the rapid acceleration of the cutter from a completed cutting operation to a new location so that the stepper motor will not lose its steps and mess up the machine zero settings? I am using CamBam and Mach3 on my machine with a chain drive. what is the best way to reduce accleration

    Decreasing the speed of acceleration in the cutter? Meaning of your router/spindle?, To modify the speed of a router will be going to the router itself and modifying the speed, but if a spindle is being used modifying it will be done either manually in the VFD (VFD Setup:
    Change PD001 to '0' (source of run commands)
    Change PD003 to 300 (main frequency - Hz)
    Change PD004 to 300 (base frequency - Hz)
    Change PD005 to 400 (max operating frequency - Hz)
    Change PD006 to 2.5 (intermediate frequency - Hz)
    Change PD008 to 220 (max voltage - V)
    Change PD009 to 15 (intermediate voltage - V)
    Change PD010 to 8 (minimum voltage - V)
    Change PD011 to 100 (frequency lower limit - Hz)
    Change PD142 to 7 (rated motor current - Amps)
    Change PD143 to 2 (motor pole number)
    Change PD144 to 3000 (rated motor revolution))<- make sure these are your settings in the VFD. If the spindle is wired to the breakout board and is working through Mach 3 then the modification will be done in your CamBam/Feed rate settings.

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    How can I decrease the rapid acceleration of the cutter from a completed cutting operation to a new location so that the stepper motor will not lose its steps and mess up the machine zero settings? I am using CamBam and Mach3 on my machine with a chain drive. what is the best way to reduce accleration

  • I need the calculation to determine the stepper motor torque to find the load that it can withstand in horizontal position using a lead screw at 1/2" diameter with 13 TPI.

    There are two main questions that we can answer with respect to motor torque and the mechanical advantage of lead screws, 1) What torque motor do you need to lift a particular weight, or 2) What maximum weight will my motor torque be able to lift.

    This formula uses Newtons (N) as it's final unit. Use this with the included radius (R) to determine the torque. Newtons can easily be converted to lbs or ounces using online conversions.

    Effort = Sf + (Load/(2 x pi x (R/p) x Se))

    where:
    p = pitch of the screw
    Se = screw efficiency = Standard lead screw will be between 20% (.2) and 40% (.4)
    Sf = static force. This is the force that is needed to start the movement. The number may be eliminated, but it is good to use a number in the 5 N to 20 N range.
    Load = the expected load that the effort will need to carry (i.e., the router and the included axis assembly that the motor will need to lift)
    R = radius of the lead screw


    This formula is based on the "law of the machine"

    The final effort amount with its unit of newtons and R will be the torque. For example, if the effort comes to 100 N (newtons) and the R is .5 inches, then you can assume that the effort is 50 N-in since it would take twice the effort to turn form the one inch mark from the center of the shaft.

    Example:

    Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
    R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
    p = 1 inch / 13 = .08 inches

    Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .08) x .2))
    Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 12.5 x .2))
    Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (15.7))
    Effort = 5 N + (5.73 N)
    Effort = 10.7 N = 2.4 lbs = 38.4 oz-in

    I am putting the oz-in on the end because the formula considers the distance from the center of the shaft to be one inch.

    Therefore, a 425 oz-in motor would be able to lift a 20.2 lb Router with its accompanying assembly. If the assembly and router is heavier, plug in the numbers and determine the effort required.

    With a bit of algebra, the formula can be rewritten to find the load:

    Load = (Effort - Sf) x (2 x pi x (R/p) x Se)

    Another formula that does not consider friction at all:

    Effort = (Load x p) / (2 x pi x R)

    Lets see if we get similar results:

    Effort = (20 lb x .08 inches) / (2 x 3.14 x 1)
    Effort = 1.6 / 6.28 = .255 lbs = 4.08 oz-in

    The results from both formulas appear to be very small because a 13 TPI screw will have enormous mechanical advantage.

    It is evident that the first formula that does consider friction that we are loosely estimating is far more conservative than the second formula. Either way, even the most conservative formula shows that the 425 oz-in motor will handle very large weights. If you are using a lead screw with only two turns per inch, .5 inch pitch, you can determine the requirements with the first formula.

    Example for a 10 TPI 5 start (2 turns per inch) lead screw:

    Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
    R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
    p = 1 inch / 2 = .5 inches

    Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .5) x .2))
    Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 2 x .2))
    Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2.512))
    Effort = 5 N + (35.83 N)
    Effort = 40.828 N = 9.18 lbs = 146.88 oz-in

    Customer Response:
    thank you so much

    Additional Information:


    Additional Information:


    Additional Information:
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    I need the calculation to determine the stepper motor torque to find the load that it can withstand in horizontal position using a lead screw at 1/2" diameter with 13 TPI.

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    Click the link to add information to this solution:
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  • I need the calculation to determine the stepper motor torque to find the load that it can lift using a lead screw at 1/2" diameter with 13 TPI.

    There are two main questions that we can answer with respect to motor torque and the mechanical advantage of lead screws, 1) What torque motor do you need to lift a particular weight, or 2) What maximum weight will my motor torque be able to lift.

    This formula uses Newtons (N) as it's final unit. Use this with the included radius (R) to determine the torque. Newtons can easily be converted to lbs or ounces using online conversions.

    Effort = Sf + (Load/(2 x pi x (R/p) x Se))

    where:
    p = pitch of the screw
    Se = screw efficiency = Standard lead screw will be between 20% (.2) and 40% (.4)
    Sf = static force. This is the force that is needed to start the movement. The number may be eliminated, but it is good to use a number in the 5 N to 20 N range.
    Load = the expected load that the effort will need to carry (i.e., the router and the included axis assembly that the motor will need to lift)
    R = radius of the lead screw


    This formula is based on the "law of the machine"

    The final effort amount with its unit of newtons and R will be the torque. For example, if the effort comes to 100 N (newtons) and the R is .5 inches, then you can assume that the effort is 50 N-in since it would take twice the effort to turn form the one inch mark from the center of the shaft.

    Example:

    Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
    R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
    p = 1 inch / 13 = .08 inches

    Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .08) x .2))
    Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 12.5 x .2))
    Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (15.7))
    Effort = 5 N + (5.73 N)
    Effort = 10.7 N = 2.4 lbs = 38.4 oz-in

    I am putting the oz-in on the end because the formula considers the distance from the center of the shaft to be one inch.

    Therefore, a 425 oz-in motor would be able to lift a 20.2 lb Router with its accompanying assembly. If the assembly and router is heavier, plug in the numbers and determine the effort required.

    With a bit of algebra, the formula can be rewritten to find the load:

    Load = (Effort - Sf) x (2 x pi x (R/p) x Se)

    Another formula that does not consider friction at all:

    Effort = (Load x p) / (2 x pi x R)

    Lets see if we get similar results:

    Effort = (20 lb x .08 inches) / (2 x 3.14 x 1)
    Effort = 1.6 / 6.28 = .255 lbs = 4.08 oz-in

    The results from both formulas appear to be very small because a 13 TPI screw will have enormous mechanical advantage.

    It is evident that the first formula that does consider friction that we are loosely estimating is far more conservative than the second formula. Either way, even the most conservative formula shows that the 425 oz-in motor will handle very large weights. If you are using a lead screw with only two turns per inch, .5 inch pitch, you can determine the requirements with the first formula.

    Example for a 10 TPI 5 start (2 turns per inch) lead screw:

    Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
    R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
    p = 1 inch / 2 = .5 inches

    Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .5) x .2))
    Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 2 x .2))
    Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2.512))
    Effort = 5 N + (35.83 N)
    Effort = 40.828 N = 9.18 lbs = 146.88 oz-in

    Customer Response:
    thank you so much

    Additional Information:


    Additional Information:


    Additional Information:
    how do i calculate torque of stepper motor if lead screw coupled to motor shaft and load applied by lead screw on plate is 100 kg by vertically

    Additional Information:
    Pls


    Additional Information:
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    Additional Information:
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    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    I need the calculation to determine the stepper motor torque to find the load that it can lift using a lead screw at 1/2" diameter with 13 TPI.

  • X AXIS STEPPER MOTOR STALLS AND SHUTTERS WHEN COMING FROM A STAND STILL WON'T MOVE WITHOUT PUSH BY HAND. I TOOK THE CHAINS OFF SPUN FINE WITH OUT LOAD. HAVE CHAIN HOOKED UP CAN MACHINE BACK FORTH HAND, NO HANG UPS OR ANYTHING, BUT TRY TO IT DOESN'T JUST SPINS OUT. ANY SUGGESTIONS?

    If your axis shutters and will not move unless moved by another force, that sounds like your acceleration is set too high. Lower the acceleration until it works well, then lower it a bit more to have a margin of safety.

    IF that didn't work, try swapping the X and Y drivers. That way you will pinpoint if the issue is the driver. If the proplem persists, then there may be an issue with the motor itself.

    The X and Y drivers can be easily swapped by swapping only the motor wires.

    - Remove the x-axis motor wires from the X driver.
    - Remove the Y motor wires from the Y driver.
    - Insert the X motor wires into the Y driver.
    - Insert the Y motor wires into the X driver.

    Now the Y-axis will move the gantry. Test the Gantry movement by moving the Y axis using the up and down arrow keys (mach3).

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    X AXIS STEPPER MOTOR STALLS AND SHUTTERS WHEN COMING FROM A STAND STILL WON'T MOVE WITHOUT PUSH BY HAND. I TOOK THE CHAINS OFF SPUN FINE WITH OUT LOAD. HAVE CHAIN HOOKED UP CAN MACHINE BACK FORTH HAND, NO HANG UPS OR ANYTHING, BUT TRY TO IT DOESN'T JUST SPINS OUT. ANY SUGGESTIONS?

  • I am looking for a controller for a 3 axis dual Y stepper cnc machine. If at all possible I would like a list of the parts that will be needed. I prefer to go with an ethernet setup vs a parallel port.

    All of our controller will allow two steppers on any of the axes. Multiple stepper motors and drivers on a single axis is more a function of the way the stepper motor drives are connected to the output pins of the controller. To connect two stepper drivers to a single axis, you need to connect the output pins (dir and step) to each of the two stepper motor drivers.

    Consider the controller on cost, features and how they are connected to the computer.

    Out lowest cost controllers are:

    Mach3 USB board - Has good features and uses the USB from the computer as the main connection
    https://buildyourcnc.com/item/electronicsAndMotors-electronic-component-breakout-Mach3-USB-Board

    Parallel Breakout - The computer generates the main signals and this board conditions the signals for the drivers. Although it requires the parallel port from older computer, the board has the most broad compatibility with control software out there including Mach3 and LinuxCNC.
    https://buildyourcnc.com/item/electronicsAndMotors-parallel-breakout-relay

    Highest cost but most feature rich:

    Pokey57CNC - works with both Mach3 and Mach4
    https://buildyourcnc.com/item/electronicsAndMotors-electronic-component-breakout-Mach4-mach3-USB-ethernet-Board

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    I am looking for a controller for a 3 axis dual Y stepper cnc machine. If at all possible I would like a list of the parts that will be needed. I prefer to go with an ethernet setup vs a parallel port.

  • I would like to build the 2’x 4’ blackToe2x4v40 CNC router. I have your book. I want to build the latest model blackToe2x4 v40. Are those the correct plans on your web book page ? Is there a bill of materials? If I use a Porter Cable 3-3/4 router motor what size stepper motors do I need?

    The blackToe 2'x4' cnc machine is sold as a kit only. We offer plans for the scratch (book) build machine that can be found here for purchase and also comes with a DVD showing the build process: http://www.buildyourcnc.com/cnckitintro.aspx and the plans for build in the book is on the CNC book page: http://www.buildyourcnc.com/Book.aspx.

    You can use the same size stepping motors referenced in the book: http://www.buildyourcnc.com/category/elcombo

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    I would like to build the 2’x 4’ blackToe2x4v40 CNC router. I have your book. I want to build the latest model blackToe2x4 v40. Are those the correct plans on your web book page ? Is there a bill of materials? If I use a Porter Cable 3-3/4 router motor what size stepper motors do I need?

  • I recently had a mishap with one of my stepper drivers which resulted in a resistor being burned out. Would you be able to tell me what the resistance is for the R25 resistor inside the 6.0 amp driver?

    Currently we do not know the values of the electronic components inside our drivers, since these drivers are supplied by our manufacture and replaced by them if a manufacture defect is present.
    Please email us at customerservice@buildyourcnc.com for more information on possible replacements.

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    I recently had a mishap with one of my stepper drivers which resulted in a resistor being burned out. Would you be able to tell me what the resistance is for the R25 resistor inside the 6.0 amp driver?

  • I have purchased cable carrier chain and would like to know if you could send me a copy of that order as I need to purchase extra lengths of the links I bought. Thanks

    If you were logged in when you made the purchase, you can click the "My Account" link at the top of any page on this website and see all of your orders, order line items (with direct links to these items), and shipment information.

    Here is a link to the "My Account" page for your convenience:
    https://www.buildyourcnc.com/CustomerInfo.aspx

    I did not see your username on your internal customer record, so I added this username and you should be able to see the information in the "My Account" page.

    Additional Information:
    I just tested your accounts page and the cable carrier links are in there. Thanks and please let me know if you need further assistance.

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    I have purchased cable carrier chain and would like to know if you could send me a copy of that order as I need to purchase extra lengths of the links I bought. Thanks

  • Is it possible to increase the Z axis on the Blacktoe 2x4? My ideal would be to have 8" of travel.

    Increasing the size on your Z-axis is possible by making the over z axis longer (rails, wood structure). Remember the location of your router/spindle and over all integrity of the z-axis structure.
    Now another way of getting a longer reach is making a adjustable height table, so that you can raise or lower the material section(2' x 4') to add taller material or get a deeper cut.

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    Is it possible to increase the Z axis on the Blacktoe 2x4? My ideal would be to have 8" of travel.

  • The X-axis stepper motor on my BlackToe suddenly started acting up. It is wired bipolar series, and was working great but then in the midst of a cutting operation the stepper started sounding rough- as though one of the phases was shorting out. However, all the connections and wires are in tact. Any ideas what would most likely cause this?

    If the motor starts acting rough or is excessively trying to move without physically moving the input shaft. Re-check that your pins are in the correct settings and always set the amps required to the closest needed but not exceeded (ex. required 3.00A, but only having 3.14A revert from using 3.14 and go lower to 2.57A).
    Also a software issue that can affect the motor is Config/MotorTunning/(x,y,z)-axis, if you are trying to push your motor to move at a faster rate by modifying the acceleration and velocity could cause your motor to fail if the settings are to high. Lastly out of those two tests, would re-check wiring for continuity lastly.

    Additional Information:
    Also, even if the wiring was checked thoroughly, re-check the wiring for any chafing from wire ties or any other means of causing a short with two or more of the motor wires.

    You can also try swapping the motors from another axis to determine if the cause is derived from the driver or the motor.

    Additional Information:
    I disconnected the stepper motor entirely except left the yellow and blue wires tied together and the motor still made the sound when manually rotating the shaft. When I disconnected the yellow and blue wire the motor rotated smoothly again, so there must be a short inside the motor. Is there a warranty on the motors you sell?

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    The X-axis stepper motor on my BlackToe suddenly started acting up. It is wired bipolar series, and was working great but then in the midst of a cutting operation the stepper started sounding rough- as though one of the phases was shorting out. However, all the connections and wires are in tact. Any ideas what would most likely cause this?

  • I got the plans and hardware from you guys and im almost ready for the stepper motor part of this build. what size motors are good to use for this build? the size of cnc will be 2x4 when finish or what size will not work? thanks

    We recommend our electronics combo for the scratch build kit, which you can find on our site here: https://buildyourcnc.com/item/electronicsAndMotors-3axis-425-elcombo. This is our standard general purpose 3 axis electronics system, and includes (3) NEMA 24 425 oz-in stepping motors, (3) Drivers (3.0Amp 24-40 Volts, with 1-1/64 microstepping), (1) 36v 8.8a Power Supply, (1) Interface Board either USB or Parallel. (The USB version requires PlanetCNC software; the parallel interface board gives you a variety of options, Mach3 being one popular choice.)

    Click the link to add information to this solution:
    I got the plans and hardware from you guys and im almost ready for the stepper motor part of this build. what size motors are good to use for this build? the size of cnc will be 2x4 when finish or what size will not work? thanks

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