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### Question #: 770

Question: What kind of wire should I use between the invertor and the spindle?

Current Solution

The type of wire that should be used between the spindle and the VFD (Variable Frequency Driver also called the inverter) should be of stranded type and we use between 18 and 16 AWG.

The total current is divided among the three coil wires, therefor a wire gauge of 16 should be sufficient.

Currently we use 20AWG 4 conductor.

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### Other Possible Solutions to this Question

• How should I wire the 2.2kw spindle and vfd?

You can find the wiring diagram for the 2.2kW spindle and, follow through instructions here.
https://www.buildyourcnc.com/item/spindle-inverter-2!2kw-spindle-novfd#prettyPhoto/8/

wiring diagram at spindle top

Can you please provide settings for a 110v 2.2 spindle vfd

Can you please provide settings for a 110v 2.2 spindle vfd

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How should I wire the 2.2kw spindle and vfd?

• What type of cable and gauge should I use from the vfd to the wall outlet?

I would recommend using 14/3 power cable for the connection from the wall outlet to the VFD. The 14 is the gauge and the 3 is the number of conductors (wires) in the cable.

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What type of cable and gauge should I use from the vfd to the wall outlet?

• [78] What size circuit breaker should I use for this spindle?

The 2.2kW spindle has a power rating of 2.2kW or 2200 watts.

If the VFD AC voltage input is rated for 220 volts, then 2200 watts / 220 volts is 10 amps, so a 15 or 20 amp breaker will work.

If the VFD AC voltage input is rated for 110 volts, then 2200 watts / 110 volts is 20 amps, so a 25 or 30 amp breaker will work.

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[78] What size circuit breaker should I use for this spindle?

• [77] What circuit breaker should I use for this spindle?

The 2.2kW spindle has a power rating of 2.2kW or 2200 watts.

If the VFD AC voltage input is rated for 220 volts, then 2200 watts / 220 volts is 10 amps, so a 15 or 20 amp breaker will work.

If the VFD AC voltage input is rated for 110 volts, then 2200 watts / 110 volts is 20 amps, so a 25 or 30 amp breaker will work.

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[77] What circuit breaker should I use for this spindle?

• What is the difference between a NEMA 23 and NEMA 24 motor? can I use either one on a machine?

The frame size difference of the NEMA 23 and 24 is very slight and, depending on the motor mount both will most likely fit. The bigger difference between these stepping motors is the torque. Make sure that the motor that you purchase has the appropriate torque for the axis that it will move.

Is is safe to go with the higher torque? Or if the torque is too high for what i need is that bad?

You can use a motor with higher torque. Just make sure to select the correct driver for that motor.

The frame size has nothing to do with torque. Nema 23 means a 2.3" frame. Nema 24 means a 2.4" frame. That's all. Either could have more or less torque depending on speed and power.

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What is the difference between a NEMA 23 and NEMA 24 motor? can I use either one on a machine?

• What is the difference between a NEMA 23 and NEMA 24 motor? can I use either one on a machine?

The frame size difference of the NEMA 23 and 24 is very slight and, depending on the motor mount both will most likely fit. The bigger difference between these stepping motors is the torque. Make sure that the motor that you purchase has the appropriate torque for the axis that it will move.

Is is safe to go with the higher torque? Or if the torque is too high for what i need is that bad?

You can use a motor with higher torque. Just make sure to select the correct driver for that motor.

The frame size has nothing to do with torque. Nema 23 means a 2.3" frame. Nema 24 means a 2.4" frame. That's all. Either could have more or less torque depending on speed and power.

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What is the difference between a NEMA 23 and NEMA 24 motor? can I use either one on a machine?

• Which spindle should I use for PVC and Trespa (Hardwood)? Max diameter of cutter = 16mm Max thickness plate = 20mm

Either material, PVC or Trespa can be milled using our standard 2.2kW spindle.

https://buildyourcnc.com/item/spindle-inverter-2!2kw-spindle-vfd

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Which spindle should I use for PVC and Trespa (Hardwood)? Max diameter of cutter = 16mm Max thickness plate = 20mm

• what depth increment should I use for pocketing and profiling with the 1/2" end mill?

The pocketing depth per pass will depend on the hardness of the material, the router/spindle you are using and on the melting point of the material. Use the feedrate that you would normally use for the size and type of end mill. You will need to test the depth per pass, starting at the full depth of the pocket. The spindle should have no problem, but if you are using a router, then it may bog down, so easing up on the depth per pass is recommended. If the spindle/router has no problem at the depths you are using, then you need to evaluate the edge finish to determine if it is acceptable. If it is not acceptable, then ease up on the depth per pass. Keep doing these steps until you have the finish and precision you expect.

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what depth increment should I use for pocketing and profiling with the 1/2" end mill?

• What settings does I use for controlling the spindle in StepCon/Linuxcnc?

LinuxCNC has excellent documents; however, I would like to offer our help in case you don't understand the information on that page. So, please use this FAQ (Question #: 13233) to state your questions by submitting additional information below.

The LinuxCNC spindle control page is found here: http://linuxcnc.org/docs/html/examples/spindle.html

After reading the LinuxCNC page my first questions would be can the spindle be controlled by PWM signal? Also, what pin on the parallel port would I set to Spindle Enable and FRW?

To connect your computer to the VFD, use a USB to RS-485 interface. RS-485 is just a serial interface protocol that uses standard 0 to +5 voltage TTL signal levels for communication (as opposed to RS-232 which uses -12v and +12 for signal level changes).

Get a high quality interface to reduce any issues during the process. The VFD should have two terminals labeled RS+ and RS-. The USB to RS-485 adapter should have this labeled on it as well so the connections should be relatively straight forward.

In the VFD parameters:
PD001: 2 to accept RS485 commands
PD002: 2 to accept frequency comands
PD163: 1 to RS485 slave address:1
PD164: 1 RS485 baud rate 9600
PD165: 3 8bit, no parity, 1 stop bit

Make sure LinuxCNC is also set accordingly:

The PIN14 and PIN16 in the stepconf wizard should be set to unused because you don't want LinuxCNC to be outputting unnecessary signals.

In the options step of the stepconf wizard:
- Check the Include Halui user interface component.
- Check the Include custom PyVCP GUI panel.
- Check Spindle speed display

You will want to edit the custom.hal text file located in the folder that was created from the stepconf wizard. Add these following lines:
loadusr -Wn vfd hy_vfd -n vfd -d /dev/ttyUSB0 -p none -r 9600
net spindle-cmd-rpm-abs => vfd.speed-command
net spindle-cw motion.spindle-forward => vfd.spindle-forward
net spindle-ccw motion.spindle-reverse => vfd.spindle-reverse
net on motion.spindle-on => vfd.spindle-on

The dev folder in linux is typically used for interfacing devices and peripherals to the computer as these devices are communicated by simple memory addresses and these files are linked directly to these addresses.

Under the custom_postgui.hal file, change this line:

from: sets spindle-at-speed true
to: net spindle-at-speed => cfd.spindle_at_speed

and add the line:

setp vfd.enable 1

When you start LinuxCNC, you will a spindle section with the reverse and forward buttons, a stop button and - and + buttons. Use these buttons to conform that the spindle is functioning properly. The spindle speed indicator in LinuxCNC will show the spindle speed and you can confirm that this is equal to the speed indicated on the VFD.

Credit for this helpful information goes to:

Additional information was also added by us to provide a better understanding.

linuxcnc利用MACH3 接口板 BL-MACH-V1.1的一路经光耦隔离的 0-10V 模拟电压输出，可以控制具有相应模拟接口的变频器，控制主轴转速。输出口为 P1 口，如何利用这个p1口与变频器进行接线来控制主轴转速，并对hal文件配置代码进行书写

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What settings does I use for controlling the spindle in StepCon/Linuxcnc?

• What 1/2" collet and nut do I use for the Greenbull with the 2KW spindle? I want to order the Onsrud Spoilboard surfacing cutter.

For the 2.2kW Spindle you would need the ER20 1/2" Collet.

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What 1/2" collet and nut do I use for the Greenbull with the 2KW spindle? I want to order the Onsrud Spoilboard surfacing cutter.

• I am looking at 2 of your drivers. 1 is the 1/64 step and the other is 1/256. What is the difference between the two?

Stepper motors are designed to move in specific increments; these increments are called "steps". For example, a common standard is for 200 steps per full revolution. Microstepping is a method to send signals to the motor to move only a fraction of a full step at a time. For example, if a motor has 200 steps per revolution and is microstepped 1/16, then effectively there are 3200 small step movements (microsteps) per revolution instead of 200 larger ones. This makes the motion of the motor much smoother and more precisely controllable, at the cost of decreased holding torque.

Here are is a good references for stepper motor theory: http://users.ece.utexas.edu/~valvano/Datasheets/StepperMicrostep.pdf

And Wikipedia has a good overview as well:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stepper_motor

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I am looking at 2 of your drivers. 1 is the 1/64 step and the other is 1/256. What is the difference between the two?

• WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A PRINTER CABLE PORT AND USB MOTOR KITS

The parallel (printer cable) port is uses the computer as its main source of pulse trains to operate the motor driver directly. Parallel ports are a direct connection from the processor commonly referred to as GPIO pins (General Purpose I/O pins) and provides a convenient and powerful way to interface with the computer. The parallel breakout board is included in those kits only to condition those signals for use with the drivers.

The USB serves at the actual controller, sending the pulse trains, but the computer sends simple human readable instructions to the USB controller to tell the controller how to send pulses.

The non-technical differences that may serve as the most important information to you is that the parallel configurations allow for a wider variety of industry standard software that can be used to control the cnc machine. The USB that we offer requires the operator to use a software called Planet-CNC software which is a very well made and feature full cnc control software.

USB Motion controller breakout board work with planet cnc software?

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WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A PRINTER CABLE PORT AND USB MOTOR KITS

• What thermocouple or thermister should I use for the extruder hot end?

The best choice would be a type K thermocouple.

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What thermocouple or thermister should I use for the extruder hot end?

• what size circuit breaker should I use with the 2.2KW VFD?

The 2.2kW spindle has a power rating of 2.2kW or 2200 watts.

If the VFD AC voltage input is rated for 220 volts, then 2200 watts / 220 volts is 10 amps, so a 15 or 20 amp breaker will work.

If the VFD AC voltage input is rated for 110 volts, then 2200 watts / 110 volts is 20 amps, so a 25 or 30 amp breaker will work.

Click the link to add information to this solution:
what size circuit breaker should I use with the 2.2KW VFD?

• I am looking at 2 of your motor drivers. 1 is the 1/64 step and the other is 1/256. What is the difference between the two?

Stepper motors are designed to move in specific increments; these increments are called "steps". For example, a common standard is for 200 steps per full revolution. Microstepping is a method to send signals to the motor to move only a fraction of a full step at a time. For example, if a motor has 200 steps per revolution and is microstepped 1/16, then effectively there are 3200 small step movements (microsteps) per revolution instead of 200 larger ones. This makes the motion of the motor much smoother and more precisely controllable, at the cost of decreased holding torque.

Here are is a good references for stepper motor theory: http://users.ece.utexas.edu/~valvano/Datasheets/StepperMicrostep.pdf

And Wikipedia has a good overview as well:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stepper_motor

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I am looking at 2 of your motor drivers. 1 is the 1/64 step and the other is 1/256. What is the difference between the two?

• How should I control a plasma torch, spindle and a laser on my CNC machine?

It will depend on how you configure the machine to use the Laser and plasma. Is the laser on a separate gantry? That will determine the way you will connect the laser control system or if you use a typical CNC controller. The plasma will need inputs of THC on, THC up, THC down and outputs to trigger the plasma torch. I recommend the Pokeys57CNC for the plasma and you can also fire the laser with it, but you will not be able to do engraving with the laser unless you use a laser controller. If you use a laser controller, you will need to either build circuitry to switch the digital signals from which controller you will be using, or if you have the laser on a separate gantry, you can use a traditional laser controller connected to the stepper motor drivers on that gantry.

Users response:
I was planing on using same gantry, and installing plasma and laser module on z axis along the side with current router. Perhaps if it’s needed installing another z axis on current z axis. So that when I use plasma, router z will be homed and plasma z axis will be able to utilize thc.

When you say “If you use a laser controller, you will need to either build circuitry to switch the digital signals from which controller you will be using,”
If i install laser controller, pokeys and router motion card, do you mean all ( axis and router/laser/plasma) signals or just the one that controls router/laser/plasma?
I was wondering if I could jump (parallel connect) axis signals from card to card without ?
Also do you prefer ethernet card or usb?
I really do appreciate your help :) thanx again.

Buildyourcnc response:
Not a problem at all.

Remember that with all of that weight on the z-axis, you will not be able to do efficient raster style engraving.

By putting the laser on another gantry, say at the far end of the table, then you would be able to use a laser controller that controls its own stepper motors and the nozzle can have fast swing motion for engraving. With the laser on the z-axis of the spindle (like see on the greenBull), you will only be able to do vector motions for the laser.

You can also have a CNC interface and laser controller controlling the same stepper motor drivers, but you will need a few tri-state buffer chips where you can use a toggle switch for which controller has control of the drivers.

Click the link to add information to this solution:
How should I control a plasma torch, spindle and a laser on my CNC machine?

• In my 4'x8' Blackfoot rig, there is a maximum wire length of 16" between drivers, breakout board, and power supply as well as a maximum wire length of 10' from drivers to motors. What AWG wires should I use to connect power supply to drivers, drivers to motors, and drivers to breakout board?

What we intend our customers to use for wiring the motors to the drivers will be 4 conductor 20 AWG cable, now for the PSU to Drivers; 16-18 Gauge wire should be used, and drivers to BB(Breakout Board) should be a 24 AWG wires.

• WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PARALLEL AND USB ELECTRONICS COMBOS MOTOR KITS

The parallel (printer cable) port is uses the computer as its main source of pulse trains to operate the motor driver directly. Parallel ports are a direct connection from the processor commonly referred to as GPIO pins (General Purpose I/O pins) and provides a convenient and powerful way to interface with the computer. The parallel breakout board is included in those kits only to condition those signals for use with the drivers.

The USB serves at the actual controller, sending the pulse trains, but the computer sends simple human readable instructions to the USB controller to tell the controller how to send pulses.

The non-technical differences that may serve as the most important information to you is that the parallel configurations allow for a wider variety of industry standard software that can be used to control the cnc machine. The USB that we offer requires the operator to use a software called Planet-CNC software which is a very well made and feature full cnc control software.

USB Motion controller breakout board work with planet cnc software?

Click the link to add information to this solution:
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PARALLEL AND USB ELECTRONICS COMBOS MOTOR KITS

• Why should I use a spindle rather than a router?

The spindle is quieter and has more consistent torque (It doesn't get "bogged down" when it starts cutting into material). It can be used with collets of varying sizes (not restricted to imperial sizes). It is water cooled and so it does not blow air downward to cool the spindle like the router does. The spindle is also machined with much higher precision than typical routers and will have a much longer life.

Click the link to add information to this solution:
Why should I use a spindle rather than a router?

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