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### Question #: 13832

Question: Can I increase the travel speed of my machine with different lead screws?

Current Solution

Changing your lead screws from a tight to a lose lead will definitely make your machine move faster as long as your stepper motors can handle the new torque that the lead screws will impose.

Here is an example of a speed change from one lead screw to another:
- Existing constants in the example: Stepper Motor steps 200, microstepping 1/8 making the total steps 200 * 8 = 1600.
- New Lead Screw: 1/2" 5 starts, 10 TPI = 10 / 5 = 2 turns per inch

Old lead screw would achieve a steps per inch of:
1600 / (1 inch / 13 turns) = 20,800 steps per inch (You can also express the calculation as 1600 * 13 = 20,800 steps/inch)

New lead screw would achieve a steps per inch of:
1600 / (1 inch / 2 turns) = 3200 steps per inch

You can see that the new lead screw requires far fewer steps to get to the same length of travel. If you maintained the same velocity for both examples, the new lead screw would travel the same distance 13/2 = 6.5 times faster. So, if your velocity was say 10 ipm, your new velocity would be 65 ipm. That would translate to far fewer burned edges and longer end mill life!

Just remember, confirm that your motors will be able to handle the new lead screw. You will need to reduce the steps/inch causing the motor torque to increase quite a bit, so you should be fine.

Respond:

### Other Possible Solutions to this Question

• I want to increase my travel speeds. Can I change the lead screw to make my machine quicker?

Changing your lead screws from a tight to a lose lead will definitely make your machine move faster as long as your stepper motors can handle the new torque that the lead screws will impose.

Here is an example of a speed change from one lead screw to another:
- Existing constants in the example: Stepper Motor steps 200, microstepping 1/8 making the total steps 200 * 8 = 1600.
- New Lead Screw: 1/2" 5 starts, 10 TPI = 10 / 5 = 2 turns per inch

Old lead screw would achieve a steps per inch of:
1600 / (1 inch / 13 turns) = 20,800 steps per inch (You can also express the calculation as 1600 * 13 = 20,800 steps/inch)

New lead screw would achieve a steps per inch of:
1600 / (1 inch / 2 turns) = 3200 steps per inch

You can see that the new lead screw requires far fewer steps to get to the same length of travel. If you maintained the same velocity for both examples, the new lead screw would travel the same distance 13/2 = 6.5 times faster. So, if your velocity was say 10 ipm, your new velocity would be 65 ipm. That would translate to far fewer burned edges and longer end mill life!

Just remember, confirm that your motors will be able to handle the new lead screw. You will need to reduce the steps/inch causing the motor torque to increase quite a bit, so you should be fine.

I want to increase my travel speeds. Can I change the lead screw to make my machine quicker?

• I just made the book build Cnc machine with the feed rate of 11.19 inch/min as suggested in book. Can I increase it to 20 inch/min? I have 2hp of router attached

The book (scratch build) will be able to cut at very high rates of speed, but the speed is partly determined by the mechanical setup. Cutting wood is generally recommended between 60-200 ipm depending on the end mill and spindle being used. The larger the end mill (with increased chip load capacity) the faster the feedrate.

The stepping motors need to turn 13 times to travel one inch using standard allthread (1/2-13 TPI - threads per inch). The higher lead leadscrews shown in the link provided will move one inch with only two turns allowing the machine to move many times faster.

These speeds are especially important if you are cutting materials that have low melting points like aluminum and thermoplastics like acrylic, Plexiglas, etc. These materials require high feedrates and smaller depth per passes.

20

I just made the book build Cnc machine with the feed rate of 11.19 inch/min as suggested in book. Can I increase it to 20 inch/min? I have 2hp of router attached

• What is travel speed of the blackfoot machine ?? I read in a forum somewhere that it's around 100inches/minute. Is that accurate ??

The jog speed of the blackToe is 1000 - 1500 ipm (inches per minute). I generally set this to about 700 ipm just to be safe and 700 ipm is plenty fast for most scenarios. The cutting speed will depend on the tool (end mill) that you will use for the application, the material being used and whether a spindle or router is used. In a scenario that a spindle is used and cutting relatively hard plywood at 3/4" full depth using an Onsrud 1/4" diameter compression end mill, you can cut at around 100 - 300 ipm. Using a router would be only half the speed and cutting depth due to the poor torque.

What is travel speed of the blackfoot machine ?? I read in a forum somewhere that it's around 100inches/minute. Is that accurate ??

• Just bought Build Your own CNC Machine book. It is missing the chapter on lead screws that is described on page 181 at the end of Chaprer 16. Where can I get this info?

It sounds like you got a misprinted book. If you purchased it from us, please contact us directly for a replacement. If you bought it from Amazon or a third party, you'll need to contact them. General information about lead screws is available on this website and at buildyourtools.com.

Just bought Build Your own CNC Machine book. It is missing the chapter on lead screws that is described on page 181 at the end of Chaprer 16. Where can I get this info?

• I have a project very similar to cnc machine. I need 3 lead screws of 1.8 m with all set (supports, bearings...etc). and 3 NEMA 42 motors that I can connect with. if those are available, I need the information about shipping to Oman or UAE.

We carry several sizes of lead screw and stepper motors on our website, for example here https://buildyourcnc.com/Item/mechanical-leadscrews-lead-screw-!5-5-starts-10-tpi and here https://buildyourcnc.com/ProductSearchResults.aspx. Please call us at 281-815-7701 to discuss the particular lengths you would need and shipping options.

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• Is it possible to increase the Z axis on the Blacktoe 2x4? My ideal would be to have 8" of travel.

Increasing the size on your Z-axis is possible by making the over z axis longer (rails, wood structure). Remember the location of your router/spindle and over all integrity of the z-axis structure.
Now another way of getting a longer reach is making a adjustable height table, so that you can raise or lower the material section(2' x 4') to add taller material or get a deeper cut.

Is it possible to increase the Z axis on the Blacktoe 2x4? My ideal would be to have 8" of travel.

• I received the electronics for book build cnc machine. I need to know how much weight the z-axis motor can hold since my (craftsman) router seems to be heavy. It is 2HP with variable speed

The motor is helped by the mechanical leverage of the screw. The 425 oz-in motors that are included in the standard electronics combo has very high torque for that type of machine. You will have no problem using that motor for the book machine.

We use that motor for very heavy spindles on the blackToe and blackFoot CNC Machine kits.

You will need to do the mechanical leverage calculation along with the torque of the motor to determine the actual weight it will lift. The calculation will need to consider the type and pitch of the screw and it would also consider the gravity constant of 9.8 m/s/s.

If you need me to determine this formula and work out the calculation based on the screw you are using, please let me know.

thank you for the reply. I would be really good to know the calculation. The lead screw is 1/2" diameter with 13 TPI. Please provide the calculation. And one more question. If I am cutting 18mm MDF with 6mm cutting bit (so 6mm pass), what can be the maximum speed rate of cutting and spindle speed of router?
thank you

I received the electronics for book build cnc machine. I need to know how much weight the z-axis motor can hold since my (craftsman) router seems to be heavy. It is 2HP with variable speed

• Since I am using normal all-thread lead screw 13 TPI 1/2" for the book build cnc, what can be the maximum feed rate of machine and how can I change the mechanical setup in mach 3? I am using 1/4" steel carbile endmill with 2 flutes and router is 2 HP with variable speed

Book build (scratch build), feedrates and recommendation.

Using standard allthread will provide around 20-30 ipm using 36 volts. Although it allows for a working CNC machine, the RPM of the spindle/router will need to spin at the lowest setting to provide the beat efficiency and life for the end mill at 1/4" cut diameter and higher. The speeds may be fine for smaller end mills.

If you would like faster speeds, you should change the lead screws on the CNC machine to the 1/2" 5 start 10 TPI which translates to 2 turns per inch which means, the stepping motor will not need to turn as fast to produce faster motion. That is to say, the stepping motor will only need to turn two revolutions for the machine to travel one inch and with the allthread, the stepping motor will need to turn 13 times to reach one inch.

https://www.buildyourcnc.com/CNCMachineMechanicalParts.aspx

To change the lead screws you will need (for each axis):

1. The lead screw for that axis.
2. Two 1/2" collars to keep the lead screw axially stable.
3. One Antibacklash nut.

20

• can I control the speed of a 2.2 spindle through your 5 axis breakout board with relay?

Yes, you can control the speed of the 2.2 kW spindle, and the other spindles we sell, through Mach3 software. It requires making some changes to the settings in Mach3 and in your inverter. It also requires an additional part, which is called a USB to Serial Converter, found on our site here:

https://www.buildyourcnc.com/item/Interfaces-newbiehack-Interfaces-TTL232R-USB-UART-Serial

I have some additional instructions, that I will send upon request, by email. I will also be adding a complete tutorial and video, to the website, on how to do this soon.

20

can I control the speed of a 2.2 spindle through your 5 axis breakout board with relay?

• CAN I GET DXF FILES FOR THE UPDATED PARTS OF MY MACHINE?

Yes, the customer will need to sign our NDA (Non Disclosure Agreement) form and send it back to us. We will then send the dxf of the specific updated part of the machine.

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CAN I GET DXF FILES FOR THE UPDATED PARTS OF MY MACHINE?

• MY COMPUTER DOES NOT HAVE A PARALLEL PORT. HOW DO I INTERFACE WITH THE MACHINE?

If your computer does not have a parallel port, all you will need is a low cost PCI parallel adapter card (these can be found on amazon for \$15-\$20). If you plan on using a laptop (not recommended) you can try to find a PCMCIA parallel adapter, but many people have frequent issues with this setup. A more expensive solution would be to purchase a USB smooth stepper board. Unfortunately, we do not supply any of these adapters and cannot attest to their reliability.

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MY COMPUTER DOES NOT HAVE A PARALLEL PORT. HOW DO I INTERFACE WITH THE MACHINE?

• I wonder if it is possible to do 3d engraving with the 40w laser kit? different depths is the same piece of wood.

You can cut at varying depths with the 40w laser cutting and engraving machine. Each layer of engraving with the laser will leave behind a black charred film that will reduce the effectiveness of the engraving for deeper layers; therefore, a very strong air assist will be needed to blow this film off of the surface of the material.

CNC machines are more successful and efficient at carving and should be considered.

I wonder if it is possible to do 3d engraving with the 40w laser kit? different depths is the same piece of wood.

• WHAT LEAD TIME CAN EXPECT FOR BLACKTOE SO PICK UP THE MACHINE?

You can expect a one week lead time for our machines.

WHAT LEAD TIME CAN EXPECT FOR BLACKTOE SO PICK UP THE MACHINE?

• where is the build manual for the blacktooth laser? online? I didnt get one with my machine

For our machines our steps for the build process can be found on the actual machine page with images to reference (please read carefully all the instructions) (https://www.buildyourcnc.com/blackToothLaserCutterAndEngraver.aspx).
You can get further help here (http://blacktoothlaser.blogspot.ca/2013/04/index-for-blacktooth-laser.html?view=sidebar) a post made by one of our customers!

where is the build manual for the blacktooth laser? online? I didnt get one with my machine

• WHAT LEAD TIME CAN EXPECT FOR THE BLACKTOE MACHINE?

You can expect a one week lead time for our machines.

WHAT LEAD TIME CAN EXPECT FOR THE BLACKTOE MACHINE?

• What's the maximum speed at I can machining reliefs without lost steps with BlueChick?

This will depend on the material, end mill that you are using, and whether you are using a spindle or a router. The stepping motors and the mechanics on the blueChick (and the other machines as well) can move the machine very fast (x and y about 700 ipm rapids).

You will need to refer to the manufacturer specifications for the speed on the end mill with the particular material. The Onsrud end mills sold here are of top quality and can generally go faster than standard end mills. If the reliefs are in wood, you will be able to machine around 200 to 80 ipm depending on the wood and the depth per pass. Generally, you want to rough out most of the wood with a roughing end mill then finish off with a finishing end mill with a small tip and a small step over.

If you are using a router, the speeds will be slower than a spindle since the spindle can handle more torque and the torque is compensated with the VFD (Variable Frequency Drive).

What's the maximum speed at I can machining reliefs without lost steps with BlueChick?

• THE CNC MACHINE IS UNSAFE WITH EXPOSED SPROCKETS THAT CAN DAMAGE FINGERS AND HAVE CLOTHING CAUGHT IN IT.

These machines are inherently dangerous. Before the machine moves, the machine should be clear of any person by a dimension of at the distance of a persons reach plus a few more feet. This is the policies we institute in our shop and what is recommend to all of our customers. Treat these machines as you would treat any major power tool in the shop.

With that said, you can certainly add some protective parts, but still keep folks away even with those installed. I would use the gantry side to do all of the mounting of the protective parts. Consider using sheet metal that you can bend and make a simple installation right on the gantry side.

THE CNC MACHINE IS UNSAFE WITH EXPOSED SPROCKETS THAT CAN DAMAGE FINGERS AND HAVE CLOTHING CAUGHT IN IT.

• USING MACH3, MY MACHINE STOPS IN THE MIDDLE OF A PROJECT. HOW CAN IT BE STARTED AGAIN FROM POINT STOPPED?

Dealing with a mid-stop cut via Mach3, you will have to be careful if it is intentionally or unintentional. If you desire to stop your machine while in the middle of a cut be sure to stop it when the machine is moving in an upward motion on the z-axis and the X/Y-axis are stationary. Then you can choose the point (G-code) where the machine was left off and click on the Run from here button on the Program Run screen (left hand side) right above the Reset button.
(Make sure spindle/router is running before hand!)

Now if the machine stops unintentionally, and was moving in either the X/Y-axis, then it will be difficult to run the machine from the original point dealing with the coordinates might have been lost due the the machine continuing motion but via Mach3 the machine has stopped.

If this occurs to fight this issue before hand, is marking your home with the spindle/router to make a hole were your home is. Although moving it manually back to home the machine can be off by the smallest amount and could cause an inconsistent cut. If accuracy is something that can not be risked, then you can home the machine about a 1/4" or 1/2" down from the original home to start your cut on the same material but loosing that small piece.

My typical go to solution is:

- Note the current g-code line where the machine stopped.
- If Mach3 errored and you cannot control the machine, Exit Mach3 - you may find that reset, stop does nothing to stop the spindle. When you exit mach3, the spindle will stop automatically.
- Restart Mach3. The DRO (Digital Readout) should show the correct coordinates where the machine position was before exiting Mach3.
- Scroll to the g-code line where the machine stopped. You may need to go a few lines prior to make sure you are not skipping any machining operations (which is why it is a good idea to learn the basics of g-code - don't worry, it's easy)
- Click on the "Run from Here" button.
- Mach3 will present you with a "Preparation Move" dialog box with the location that it will move to. If the coordinates shows a position that is into the material, make sure to specify a rapid height (clearance height) so the machine will move up first and then move to the location before moving down into the material. If the spindle is automatically controlled by Mach3, make sure to check the turn spindle on checkbox. If not, make sure the router or spindle is on before clicking OK.

My cnc router stops at gcode line 50,000 and cannot finish program. They are about 150k of lines total. I have Mach3 and have bought the additional line capability. Is 50,000 (or around that) the limit? Is Mach 4 hobby license better and in what ways? Thanks! Mike Huber

If you have a license for Mach3, then you should be able to run g-code indefinitely. I think there is something else going on.

If you have a license for Mach3, then you should be able to run g-code indefinitely. I think there is something else going on.
What else could be going on?

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USING MACH3, MY MACHINE STOPS IN THE MIDDLE OF A PROJECT. HOW CAN IT BE STARTED AGAIN FROM POINT STOPPED?

• I own a BlackToe cnc machine. The plastic threads with the spring over them broke. Where can i purchase a replacement part?

If you're talking about the anti-backlash nut, ou can find replacements on our website here: https://buildyourcnc.com/CNCMachineMechanicalParts.aspx and here: https://buildyourcnc.com/CNCMachineMechanicalParts.aspx. If you have something else in mind, please contact us to further describe the part you need.

I own a BlackToe cnc machine. The plastic threads with the spring over them broke. Where can i purchase a replacement part?

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