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### Question #: 13833

Question: Can I make my feedrates faster by changing my lead screw?

Current Solution

Changing your lead screws from a tight to a lose lead will definitely make your machine move faster as long as your stepper motors can handle the new torque that the lead screws will impose.

Here is an example of a speed change from one lead screw to another:
- Existing constants in the example: Stepper Motor steps 200, microstepping 1/8 making the total steps 200 * 8 = 1600.
- New Lead Screw: 1/2" 5 starts, 10 TPI = 10 / 5 = 2 turns per inch

Old lead screw would achieve a steps per inch of:
1600 / (1 inch / 13 turns) = 20,800 steps per inch (You can also express the calculation as 1600 * 13 = 20,800 steps/inch)

New lead screw would achieve a steps per inch of:
1600 / (1 inch / 2 turns) = 3200 steps per inch

You can see that the new lead screw requires far fewer steps to get to the same length of travel. If you maintained the same velocity for both examples, the new lead screw would travel the same distance 13/2 = 6.5 times faster. So, if your velocity was say 10 ipm, your new velocity would be 65 ipm. That would translate to far fewer burned edges and longer end mill life!

Just remember, confirm that your motors will be able to handle the new lead screw. You will need to reduce the steps/inch causing the motor torque to increase quite a bit, so you should be fine.

Respond:

### Other Possible Solutions to this Question

• I want to increase my travel speeds. Can I change the lead screw to make my machine quicker?

Changing your lead screws from a tight to a lose lead will definitely make your machine move faster as long as your stepper motors can handle the new torque that the lead screws will impose.

Here is an example of a speed change from one lead screw to another:
- Existing constants in the example: Stepper Motor steps 200, microstepping 1/8 making the total steps 200 * 8 = 1600.
- New Lead Screw: 1/2" 5 starts, 10 TPI = 10 / 5 = 2 turns per inch

Old lead screw would achieve a steps per inch of:
1600 / (1 inch / 13 turns) = 20,800 steps per inch (You can also express the calculation as 1600 * 13 = 20,800 steps/inch)

New lead screw would achieve a steps per inch of:
1600 / (1 inch / 2 turns) = 3200 steps per inch

You can see that the new lead screw requires far fewer steps to get to the same length of travel. If you maintained the same velocity for both examples, the new lead screw would travel the same distance 13/2 = 6.5 times faster. So, if your velocity was say 10 ipm, your new velocity would be 65 ipm. That would translate to far fewer burned edges and longer end mill life!

Just remember, confirm that your motors will be able to handle the new lead screw. You will need to reduce the steps/inch causing the motor torque to increase quite a bit, so you should be fine.

I want to increase my travel speeds. Can I change the lead screw to make my machine quicker?

• What is the longest 1/2" Acme lead screw that I can buy?

We can supply 1/2" lead screw with a maximum continuous length of 77 inches.

Please give me a cost on a 6'x 1/2" lead screw. Thank you

no

what is the total cost for 77 inches of 1/2 inch lead screw?

what is the cost of 6 feet lead screw.

What is the longest 1/2" Acme lead screw that I can buy?

• HOW DO I DETERMINE THE AMOUNT OF SCREW WEIGTH THAT MY MOTOR CAN HANDLE

There are two main questions that we can answer with respect to motor torque and the mechanical advantage of lead screws, 1) What torque motor do you need to lift a particular weight, or 2) What maximum weight will my motor torque be able to lift.

This formula uses Newtons (N) as it's final unit. Use this with the included radius (R) to determine the torque. Newtons can easily be converted to lbs or ounces using online conversions.

Effort = Sf + (Load/(2 x pi x (R/p) x Se))

where:
p = pitch of the screw
Se = screw efficiency = Standard lead screw will be between 20% (.2) and 40% (.4)
Sf = static force. This is the force that is needed to start the movement. The number may be eliminated, but it is good to use a number in the 5 N to 20 N range.
Load = the expected load that the effort will need to carry (i.e., the router and the included axis assembly that the motor will need to lift)

This formula is based on the "law of the machine"

The final effort amount with its unit of newtons and R will be the torque. For example, if the effort comes to 100 N (newtons) and the R is .5 inches, then you can assume that the effort is 50 N-in since it would take twice the effort to turn form the one inch mark from the center of the shaft.

Example:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 13 = .08 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .08) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 12.5 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (15.7))
Effort = 5 N + (5.73 N)
Effort = 10.7 N = 2.4 lbs = 38.4 oz-in

I am putting the oz-in on the end because the formula considers the distance from the center of the shaft to be one inch.

Therefore, a 425 oz-in motor would be able to lift a 20.2 lb Router with its accompanying assembly. If the assembly and router is heavier, plug in the numbers and determine the effort required.

With a bit of algebra, the formula can be rewritten to find the load:

Load = (Effort - Sf) x (2 x pi x (R/p) x Se)

Another formula that does not consider friction at all:

Effort = (Load x p) / (2 x pi x R)

Lets see if we get similar results:

Effort = (20 lb x .08 inches) / (2 x 3.14 x 1)
Effort = 1.6 / 6.28 = .255 lbs = 4.08 oz-in

The results from both formulas appear to be very small because a 13 TPI screw will have enormous mechanical advantage.

It is evident that the first formula that does consider friction that we are loosely estimating is far more conservative than the second formula. Either way, even the most conservative formula shows that the 425 oz-in motor will handle very large weights. If you are using a lead screw with only two turns per inch, .5 inch pitch, you can determine the requirements with the first formula.

Example for a 10 TPI 5 start (2 turns per inch) lead screw:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 2 = .5 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .5) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 2 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2.512))
Effort = 5 N + (35.83 N)
Effort = 40.828 N = 9.18 lbs = 146.88 oz-in

Customer Response:
thank you so much

how do i calculate torque of stepper motor if lead screw coupled to motor shaft and load applied by lead screw on plate is 100 kg by vertically

Pls

1m 16mmdiameter ball screws calculations

What is the max load that 2 NEMA 17 stepper motors (spaced 2 feet apart, both will be pushing up on the same gantry) can lift while using a rod with the following specifications T8 OD 8mm Pitch 2mm Lead 4mm for each motor.

1

HOW DO I DETERMINE THE AMOUNT OF SCREW WEIGTH THAT MY MOTOR CAN HANDLE

• I am looking for a lead screw with a 4mm lead, at least 4 starts and 36" in length, can you help me out?

I will check with some of our suppliers.

I am looking for a lead screw with a 4mm lead, at least 4 starts and 36" in length, can you help me out?

• Can I make the router mount larger so my router fits?

If you are using a router that will not fit into the router mount, it is best to have the mount requested from us. The mounts were designed with the appropriate thickness of material for structural purposes and to maintain this structure under load.

Can I make the router mount larger so my router fits?

• How do I keep the lead screw from moving back and forth?

The lead screw needs to be stabilized axially. The lead screw should turn, but not move any other way. The method to keep the lead screw stable is to use two bearings with ID (inside diameter) that match the diameter of the lead screw. The bearings are positioned before and after a stable structural part. A collar is positioned at one side of the bearing assembly and another collar, or end of a coupling is positioned at the other side of the bearing assembly.

How many times do you need to turn the handle to move the lead screw 1 inch?

For our 5 start 10 tpi, the lead nut will travel one inch with two turns of the lead screw.

How do I keep the lead screw from moving back and forth?

• How do I configure my control program (i.e. Mach3, EMC2, etc.) for lead screw steps per inch?

You will first need to derive the number of turns per inch that your lead screw produces. If there is only a single start (typical all thread screws), then the turns per inch is the same as TPI (threads per inch). If there is multiple starts, then the number of starts is divided by the TPI to determine the turns per inch. For example, 10 TPI with 5 starts is 10 / 5 = 2 turns per inch. Now that we know this, we can get the number of steps per inch as described in the previous question: take the number of steps per revolution that the motor will output. This will be the number of full steps that you motor produces (typically 200, or 1.8 degrees per step) multiplied by the microstepping per step to which the driver is configured. Simply multiple the number of turns per inch and the number of steps per revolution and you will get the steps per inch. Ok, lets see the formula:

200 steps * 16 microsteps * 2 turns per inch = 6400 steps per inch

14798

hallo i have cnc with ball screw 2.5mm of pith..n driver stepping 1/16 how to setup step value

i have ball screw with 2.5 mm of pith n 1 start motor 200 step 1/16 driver stepping

How do I configure my control program (i.e. Mach3, EMC2, etc.) for lead screw steps per inch?

• How do I order a pacific length of lead screw?

Just specify the full length in the quantity field in the shopping cart and give us a call to inform us of the cut lengths (you can also email customer service - link in the contact us page - link at the footer). We are working on a way to do this at the product page, but won't be finished for a few more days.

20

How do I order a pacific length of lead screw?

• I am asking what to set my steps per using your kit stepper motors and a 1/2"x13 lead screw with Mach3

Here is the formula for steps/inch (steps per inch)

Steps = how many steps for a full ration of the motor = standard motor steps x number of microsteps for each step
Standard motor steps for our stepping motors is 200 steps per revolution.
Microsteps are selected on the driver and are shown as full, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32 etc... Use the denominator for the number of microsteps per step.

Inches = how far the travel is for one full rotation of the motor. For the 1/2" - 13 TPI (threads per inch), the travel length will be 1"/13 or .076923". So, for one revolution of the motor, the travel distance will be .076923 inches.

So, the steps = 200 * microsteps, let's make this 1/4 just for the formula.
The inches will be .076923. Plug those into the formula:
Steps / inch = (200 * 4) / .076923 This can also be written as:
200 * 4 / (1 / 13) = 10,400

I am asking what to set my steps per using your kit stepper motors and a 1/2"x13 lead screw with Mach3

• Can I increase the travel speed of my machine with different lead screws?

Changing your lead screws from a tight to a lose lead will definitely make your machine move faster as long as your stepper motors can handle the new torque that the lead screws will impose.

Here is an example of a speed change from one lead screw to another:
- Existing constants in the example: Stepper Motor steps 200, microstepping 1/8 making the total steps 200 * 8 = 1600.
- New Lead Screw: 1/2" 5 starts, 10 TPI = 10 / 5 = 2 turns per inch

Old lead screw would achieve a steps per inch of:
1600 / (1 inch / 13 turns) = 20,800 steps per inch (You can also express the calculation as 1600 * 13 = 20,800 steps/inch)

New lead screw would achieve a steps per inch of:
1600 / (1 inch / 2 turns) = 3200 steps per inch

You can see that the new lead screw requires far fewer steps to get to the same length of travel. If you maintained the same velocity for both examples, the new lead screw would travel the same distance 13/2 = 6.5 times faster. So, if your velocity was say 10 ipm, your new velocity would be 65 ipm. That would translate to far fewer burned edges and longer end mill life!

Just remember, confirm that your motors will be able to handle the new lead screw. You will need to reduce the steps/inch causing the motor torque to increase quite a bit, so you should be fine.

Can I increase the travel speed of my machine with different lead screws?

• How can I make my memory better?

Use Transcranial direct current stimulation. This technique is used by DARPA and the military to better identify enemy military vehicles. The person in control of a drone, or UAV is given this tDCS and the identification becomes enhanced. This excites the savant features of the brain.

How can I make my memory better?

• If I order 19ft of the 1/2" lead screw will it come in three 6'5" lengths by default? This is what I need. Thanks

No they will not come in that length as a default, we would contact the buyer to ask specific lengths due to the total length purchased.

However if you order the 1/2" lead screw we can get them cut to the specific length you require, by contacting us here or call us at 281-815-7701.

If I order 19ft of the 1/2" lead screw will it come in three 6'5" lengths by default? This is what I need. Thanks

• I am getting that radus error in Mach3 and changing my IJ setting is not working. Any suggestions?

What is the actual error that you are seeing in Mach3 and what CAM program are you using? Did you try installing a later version of Mach3 if your's is an earlier version? What post-processing setting are you using in your CAM program?

I am getting that radus error in Mach3 and changing my IJ setting is not working. Any suggestions?

• I want my cnc to move quicker. I want to update my lead screws. will this make my cnc move quicker on all 3 axis. If it would which lead screw is better 2 turns per inch or 5 turns per inch.

Changing your lead screws from a tight to a lose lead will definitely make your machine move faster as long as your stepper motors can handle the new torque that the lead screws will impose.

Here is an example of a speed change from one lead screw to another:
- Existing constants in the example: Stepper Motor steps 200, microstepping 1/8 making the total steps 200 * 8 = 1600.
- New Lead Screw: 1/2" 5 starts, 10 TPI = 10 / 5 = 2 turns per inch

Old lead screw would achieve a steps per inch of:
1600 / (1 inch / 13 turns) = 20,800 steps per inch (You can also express the calculation as 1600 * 13 = 20,800 steps/inch)

New lead screw would achieve a steps per inch of:
1600 / (1 inch / 2 turns) = 3200 steps per inch

You can see that the new lead screw requires far fewer steps to get to the same length of travel. If you maintained the same velocity for both examples, the new lead screw would travel the same distance 13/2 = 6.5 times faster. So, if your velocity was say 10 ipm, your new velocity would be 65 ipm. That would translate to far fewer burned edges and longer end mill life!

Just remember, confirm that your motors will be able to handle the new lead screw. You will need to reduce the steps/inch causing the motor torque to increase quite a bit, so you should be fine.

I want my cnc to move quicker. I want to update my lead screws. will this make my cnc move quicker on all 3 axis. If it would which lead screw is better 2 turns per inch or 5 turns per inch.

• I need the calculation to determine the stepper motor torque to find the load that it can lift using a lead screw at 1/2" diameter with 13 TPI.

There are two main questions that we can answer with respect to motor torque and the mechanical advantage of lead screws, 1) What torque motor do you need to lift a particular weight, or 2) What maximum weight will my motor torque be able to lift.

This formula uses Newtons (N) as it's final unit. Use this with the included radius (R) to determine the torque. Newtons can easily be converted to lbs or ounces using online conversions.

Effort = Sf + (Load/(2 x pi x (R/p) x Se))

where:
p = pitch of the screw
Se = screw efficiency = Standard lead screw will be between 20% (.2) and 40% (.4)
Sf = static force. This is the force that is needed to start the movement. The number may be eliminated, but it is good to use a number in the 5 N to 20 N range.
Load = the expected load that the effort will need to carry (i.e., the router and the included axis assembly that the motor will need to lift)

This formula is based on the "law of the machine"

The final effort amount with its unit of newtons and R will be the torque. For example, if the effort comes to 100 N (newtons) and the R is .5 inches, then you can assume that the effort is 50 N-in since it would take twice the effort to turn form the one inch mark from the center of the shaft.

Example:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 13 = .08 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .08) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 12.5 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (15.7))
Effort = 5 N + (5.73 N)
Effort = 10.7 N = 2.4 lbs = 38.4 oz-in

I am putting the oz-in on the end because the formula considers the distance from the center of the shaft to be one inch.

Therefore, a 425 oz-in motor would be able to lift a 20.2 lb Router with its accompanying assembly. If the assembly and router is heavier, plug in the numbers and determine the effort required.

With a bit of algebra, the formula can be rewritten to find the load:

Load = (Effort - Sf) x (2 x pi x (R/p) x Se)

Another formula that does not consider friction at all:

Effort = (Load x p) / (2 x pi x R)

Lets see if we get similar results:

Effort = (20 lb x .08 inches) / (2 x 3.14 x 1)
Effort = 1.6 / 6.28 = .255 lbs = 4.08 oz-in

The results from both formulas appear to be very small because a 13 TPI screw will have enormous mechanical advantage.

It is evident that the first formula that does consider friction that we are loosely estimating is far more conservative than the second formula. Either way, even the most conservative formula shows that the 425 oz-in motor will handle very large weights. If you are using a lead screw with only two turns per inch, .5 inch pitch, you can determine the requirements with the first formula.

Example for a 10 TPI 5 start (2 turns per inch) lead screw:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 2 = .5 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .5) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 2 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2.512))
Effort = 5 N + (35.83 N)
Effort = 40.828 N = 9.18 lbs = 146.88 oz-in

Customer Response:
thank you so much

how do i calculate torque of stepper motor if lead screw coupled to motor shaft and load applied by lead screw on plate is 100 kg by vertically

Pls

1m 16mmdiameter ball screws calculations

What is the max load that 2 NEMA 17 stepper motors (spaced 2 feet apart, both will be pushing up on the same gantry) can lift while using a rod with the following specifications T8 OD 8mm Pitch 2mm Lead 4mm for each motor.

1

I need the calculation to determine the stepper motor torque to find the load that it can lift using a lead screw at 1/2" diameter with 13 TPI.

• If I buy the 1/2" 5 start lead screw and the 3/8" 5 start lead screws will it all work together

If the turns per inch on a lead screw is different, then the nut on the lead screw will move at a different velocity.

Let me explain in more detail.

Let's say you have two lead screws:

- 1/2" 5 starts at 10 TPI = 2 turns per inch. (5 starts / 10 TPI = 1/2 inches per turn or 10 TPI / 5 Starts = 2 turns per inch.)

- 3/8" 2 starts at 10 TPI = 5 turns per inch. (2 starts / 10 TPI = 1/5 inches per turn or 10 TPI / 2 starts = 5 turns per inch.)

So, if two stepper motors (one connected to the 1/2" lead screw and the other connected to the 3/8" lead screw) turned 10 revolutions in 2 seconds, the 1/2" lead nut would travel 5 inches and the 3/8" lead nut would travel 2 inches at the 2 second mark.

If I buy the 1/2" 5 start lead screw and the 3/8" 5 start lead screws will it all work together

• I bought a used cnc router. Can you make the electronics work?

Yes, you can send your electronics to us for repair, or retrofit to work with either Mach3, Mach4 or LinuxCNC. You can send us an email at customerService@buildyourcnc.com to set up your appointment.

Some of the types of CNC electronics we will consider.

- We will work on electronics from other manufacturers as long as you are ok with the Mach3, Mach4 or LinuxCNC control software for your CNC machine or CNC router.

- We will repair or retrofit used CNC electronics.

- Some customers find that electronics are overwhelming to put together so we will finish these electronics wiring and assembly for you.

The cost for these includes labor cost for the time it takes to finish the CNC electronics repair or retrofit and for any parts that need to be replaced or added.

Here is an example of CNC electronics that we worked on for a customer:

This is the type of response that you can expect to receive after the CNC electronics are repaired or retrofitted to work under Mach3, Mach4 or LinuxCNC. You can see the entire work, which also shows the time involved. We also show what we were able to accomplish at the beginning of the video.

I bought a used cnc router. Can you make the electronics work?

• I just changed my X and Y to the ACME 1/2" 5 start lead screw. What are the motor tuning numbers. I have the book built machine.

The settings that will have to be change will be your steps per inch in motor tuning (mach 3), or settings/axes(planetCNC). But we do not have the actual numbers/specs that will fit your 10 TPI 5 start lead screw, here is a tutorial video which explains how to get the exact numbers you need! (

)

I just changed my X and Y to the ACME 1/2" 5 start lead screw. What are the motor tuning numbers. I have the book built machine.

• How can I make LinuxCNC control a spindle?

LinuxCNC has excellent documents; however, I would like to offer our help in case you don't understand the information on that page. So, please use this FAQ (Question #: 13233) to state your questions by submitting additional information below.

The LinuxCNC spindle control page is found here: http://linuxcnc.org/docs/html/examples/spindle.html

After reading the LinuxCNC page my first questions would be can the spindle be controlled by PWM signal? Also, what pin on the parallel port would I set to Spindle Enable and FRW?

To connect your computer to the VFD, use a USB to RS-485 interface. RS-485 is just a serial interface protocol that uses standard 0 to +5 voltage TTL signal levels for communication (as opposed to RS-232 which uses -12v and +12 for signal level changes).

Get a high quality interface to reduce any issues during the process. The VFD should have two terminals labeled RS+ and RS-. The USB to RS-485 adapter should have this labeled on it as well so the connections should be relatively straight forward.

In the VFD parameters:
PD001: 2 to accept RS485 commands
PD002: 2 to accept frequency comands
PD163: 1 to RS485 slave address:1
PD164: 1 RS485 baud rate 9600
PD165: 3 8bit, no parity, 1 stop bit

Make sure LinuxCNC is also set accordingly:

The PIN14 and PIN16 in the stepconf wizard should be set to unused because you don't want LinuxCNC to be outputting unnecessary signals.

In the options step of the stepconf wizard:
- Check the Include Halui user interface component.
- Check the Include custom PyVCP GUI panel.
- Check Spindle speed display

You will want to edit the custom.hal text file located in the folder that was created from the stepconf wizard. Add these following lines:
loadusr -Wn vfd hy_vfd -n vfd -d /dev/ttyUSB0 -p none -r 9600
net spindle-cmd-rpm-abs => vfd.speed-command
net spindle-cw motion.spindle-forward => vfd.spindle-forward
net spindle-ccw motion.spindle-reverse => vfd.spindle-reverse
net on motion.spindle-on => vfd.spindle-on

The dev folder in linux is typically used for interfacing devices and peripherals to the computer as these devices are communicated by simple memory addresses and these files are linked directly to these addresses.

Under the custom_postgui.hal file, change this line:

from: sets spindle-at-speed true
to: net spindle-at-speed => cfd.spindle_at_speed

setp vfd.enable 1

When you start LinuxCNC, you will a spindle section with the reverse and forward buttons, a stop button and - and + buttons. Use these buttons to conform that the spindle is functioning properly. The spindle speed indicator in LinuxCNC will show the spindle speed and you can confirm that this is equal to the speed indicated on the VFD.

Credit for this helpful information goes to:

Additional information was also added by us to provide a better understanding.

How can I make LinuxCNC control a spindle?

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