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### Question #: 14415

Question: How can I convert RPM to hertz Hz?

Current Solution

1 RPM = 1/60 Hz
1 RPM = 0.01666666 Hz.

So, say you wanted to know the Hz for 12,000 RPM

(12,000 Revolutions / Minute) / 60 = 200 Hz
or
12,000 RPM x 0.016666 = 200 Hz

If you needed to determine the RPM from the Hz, then

RPM = Hz x 60

So, say you wanted to know what RPM is for 400 Hz:

60 x 400 Hz = 24,000

Respond:

### Other Possible Solutions to this Question

• how can I convert my orinary drill press to a servo drill press?

There may be many ways to do this. My recommendation would be is to add an encoder to the shaft of the existing motor and connect that to a servo controller so you have closed loop control. This way, you have the torque from the pulleys in the top of the drill press.

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how can I convert my orinary drill press to a servo drill press?

• how can I convert the whiteAnt from the 3D printer mode to the CNC milling mode?

To convert the whiteAnt to a CNC machine, you will want to lower the upper structure to the lowest position to create the most rigidity overall. You will see that there are many holes below the sides of the upper structure that are evenly spaced. This is so you can adjust this lower. You will also want to fasten the lower sides to a substrate (piece of wood, or something) with l-brackets or something that has a bit of adjustment capability. This will keep the sides more rigid as well. Use a Dremel for the spindle. If you want to use a another spindle, let me know and we can product a mount for that spindle since the Dremel has poor runout (TIR). This is important if you are wanting really precise milling.

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how can I convert the whiteAnt from the 3D printer mode to the CNC milling mode?

• How can I convert from Xylotex to yours, four axis with limit switches. Have parallel PC and steppers on machine.

Sure, the USB interface has a place for 4 axes of limit switches.

Each axis can have two limit switches: one for the ++ (positive) end and one for the -- (negative) end. The positive end would be the limit switch at the end of the machine that, say the machine has a 4'x8' area, reaches a bit after the 8 foot mark. The negative end would be the limit switch behind the 0 foot location behind the origin. If the origin is in the middle, the negative would be at a little more than the -4 foot end and the positive would be at a bit more than the +4 foot end. Note that you can have more than one switch on each pin where the NC is connected in serial fashion and the NO is connected in parallel fashion (this can be seen on the diagram in the multiple limits switch section). The software configurations for the limits switches are under File -> Settings -> Limit.

A typical limit switch has three connections on it. These connections consist of COM (common), NC (normally closed) and NO (normally open). The COM would generally go to GND and the NC or the NO would go to the pin. If the NC is used, then the the switch is constantly connected until the switch is pushed (engaged) then the connection from the pin to gnd is broken (open). Use the settings in software to set whether in NC or NO configuration.

Let me know if this information was helpful (or not) by adding information to this question. Thanks.

User response:
Thank you very much for this helpful information. I'm still a little fuzzy on how the 6 limit switches physically connect to each other and to the USB breakout board. You've stated one switch (home) goes to positive and another switch (limit) goes to negative. Are all the GND prongs from all 6 switches connected to each other and going to GND on the breakout board, or no? And the NC prongs, how exactly are they connected to each other? And to the board? There has to be a diagram somewhere shows this visually, no? I don't know how to wire the switches in series or in parallel. I have already physically installed all the switches on the machine and ran the wires to where the board is. Now I just need to know where to plug these wires into the board. Also, taking into consideration that I'm using the Planet CNC software, the only settings I have pertaining to limit switches is "Enable/Disable" for each axis, and the actual limit for each axis. Nothing about NC or NO. Is that only in Mach3?
Thank you.

buildyourcnc response:
On the USB interface, the COM on the switch connects to GND and the NC or NO connects to the input pin (i.e. x++, y--, etc.)

Limit switch configuration is rather difficult to understand, especially with series and parallel. You can think of series as a single wire going from GND to the axis letter input terminal (i.e. X++ or X--). If the wire is broken, then the circuit is open (or the switch is engaged in a normally closed scenario). Normally closed is like an actual wire, and when engaged, the switch "opens" (breaks the wire). This is why we recommend in some systems that you can put many switches in series on a single pin. When one of the switches is engaged (breaking the connection) then the entire circuit of switches is broken and the machine stops.

In a parallel scenario, the state of the circuit is always broken until the one of the switches is engaged and the circuit is then closed or connected. The topology looks like a ladder. All the switches connect to both sides of the ladder and the switches are like the runs of the ladder (the horizontal bars that the feet are placed while climbing). Imagine all of the switches broken in this scenario (normally open). It would be like the ladder could be split in two, but if one of the ladder runs (switches) is closed by engaging it, then that run would connect both sides of the ladder and the two sides of the ladder would have a connection.

There is a diagram on the USB page of the various limit switch configurations. If you need more information (visual and/or otherwise), please let us know and we will immediately add that information to benefit everyone.

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How can I convert from Xylotex to yours, four axis with limit switches. Have parallel PC and steppers on machine.

• How to I calculate RPM based on hertz displayed/set on the 2.2kw VFD (110V AC version)?

To calculate RPM use this formula, in which you will have to find RPM's when you have Hz.
1 RPM = 0.01666666667 Hz
Formula: 0.01666666667 × RPM = Hz
On our VFD if you select the >> button about 3-4 times, it will change from Hz, A, or ROTT.
When the LED's are lit on Power, FOR, and ROTT, you should be able to see the RPM the spindle is running at, our maximum setting for these spindles is 400Hz / 24000 RPM.

press the shift key on the key pad and the led at the top of the display will move to the right until the Rot (RPM) led is lit the display will now show RMP

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How to I calculate RPM based on hertz displayed/set on the 2.2kw VFD (110V AC version)?

• I HAVE BLACKTOE 4.1 WITH PORTER CABLE 890 ROUTER.TO CONVERT TO SPINDLE(2.2KW) CAN JUST CHANGE THE MOUNT?

If you would like to use a spindle rather than a router on your existing CNC, we will send you another set of components that will allow the spindle to be mounted properly which includes the z-axis rails, rail support, spindle mounts and the dust shoe components. You can find this item to purchase here: https://www.buildyourcnc.com/category/z-axis

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I HAVE BLACKTOE 4.1 WITH PORTER CABLE 890 ROUTER.TO CONVERT TO SPINDLE(2.2KW) CAN JUST CHANGE THE MOUNT?

• I have blacktoe 4.1 with porter cable 890 router.To convert to spindle(2.2kw) can I just change the mount?

If you would like to use a spindle rather than a router on your existing CNC, we will send you another set of components that will allow the spindle to be mounted properly which includes the z-axis rails, rail support, spindle mounts and the dust shoe components. You can find this item to purchase here: https://www.buildyourcnc.com/category/z-axis

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I have blacktoe 4.1 with porter cable 890 router.To convert to spindle(2.2kw) can I just change the mount?

• How to I get the VFD to display rotation speed in RPM?

To calculate RPM use this formula, in which you will have to find RPM's when you have Hz.
1 RPM = 0.01666666667 Hz
Formula: 0.01666666667 × RPM = Hz
On our VFD if you select the >> button about 3-4 times, it will change from Hz, A, or ROTT.
When the LED's are lit on Power, FOR, and ROTT, you should be able to see the RPM the spindle is running at, our maximum setting for these spindles is 400Hz / 24000 RPM.

press the shift key on the key pad and the led at the top of the display will move to the right until the Rot (RPM) led is lit the display will now show RMP

Click the link to add information to this solution:
How to I get the VFD to display rotation speed in RPM?

• HOW CAN MOUNT THE EXTRUDER TO WHITEANT

Mounting the extruder to the whiteAnt can be done a couple of ways. One is to take the 4 mounting holes located at the lower portion of the z-axis rail support and use long screws protruding out. Take a thinner material and drill the four holes matching the locations of the 4 screws and screw on nuts to hold it in place. The other option would be to use the metal bracket and fasten to the edge of the rail support.

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HOW CAN MOUNT THE EXTRUDER TO WHITEANT

• How can I connect my pc to my motor drivers and motors?

All you need is a CNC controller like the following options:

https://www.buildyourcnc.com/item/electronicsAndMotors-electronic-component-breakout-Mach3-USB-Board

This controller is easy to connect using standard wire screw terminals and works with the mach3 control software.

https://www.buildyourcnc.com/item/electronicsAndMotors-electronic-component-breakout-Mach4-mach3-USB-ethernet-Board

This controller is a little bit more difficult to connect, but is a more feature-rich controller and will work with both mach3 and mach4 CNC control software titles.

Specifically, a CNC controller connects to the computer via a USB cable and connects to the motor drivers. These controllers also connect to the limit switches, spindle/router control, air/fluid/mist control, etc.

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How can I connect my pc to my motor drivers and motors?

• I want to fix the tramming issue, how can I measure this

You can measure the tramming angle by putting a long L shaped rod that will fit into the spindle's collet and affix a piece that will tough the table to the other end of the rod. Rotate the rod to determine how far out you are. The longer the rod, the more accurate the measurement will be.

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I want to fix the tramming issue, how can I measure this

• how do I connect my spindle to mach3 so mach3 can control it

It is not necessary to connect the spindle VFD (Variable Frequency Drive also called an Inverter) to the computer or CNC motion electronics. The VFD can be controlled independently using the control panel on the VFD. The control panel has the ability to control all aspects of the spindle including Speed, Torque, limits, etc. However, you can connect the VFD to the computer so the CNC control program can control the spindle during the CNC Machine operation. You will need to connect the VFD to the computer via a serial conection (in this case, it is the RS-485 protocol).

The following are instructions on how to connect the VFD to Mach3 via this RS-485 serial connection.

The first thing you will need is the dynamic link library to pair with mach3 called the Huanyang VFD Mach3 PlugIn. You can find this file at the mach3 support forum here: http://www.machsupport.com/forum/index.php/topic,14182.0.html

You will also need to download the Microsoft .net 3.5 framework and install it: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=21

Follow the pdf that comes with the library file, but here is a synopsis of what you need to do (I also added a lot more information that may be useful during this process as the manual does not cover the main connections that need to be done):

You will need to program your VFD so that it knows how to communicate with mach3 and the computer (go into the programming mode of the VFD and change these parameters):
- PD001 - value 2 - Enables with communication aspect of the VFD
- PD002 - value 2 - Enables frequency control from the communcations port
- PD163 - value 1 - VFD address
- PD164 - value 1 - Baud rate of 9600 (speed of the communication)
- PD165 - value 3 - 8N1 RTU - 8 bits (that's the size of the word that gets communicated), N (No parity or no error checking) and 1 (1 stop bit)

Copy the dll file to the PlugIns folder of mach3.

Connect the RX and TX lines to your computer. There are a couple ways you can do this, but the recommended way would be to use an FTDI USB device which converts a USB to a serial com port. The device will have Rx and Tx connectors to connect to the VFD terminals with the same labels. This method is recommended since serial ports are not as common in computers these days.

Next, you will need to configure mach3 to use the plugin library. Start mach3 and click on Menu -> config ->Config Plugins. Enable the new plugin by clicking on the red cross on the left column next to the plug in. Restart mach3 after doing this.

No you need to configure mach3 to use the HuanyangVFD plugin. Go to the ports & pins configuration and select the spindle setup tab. Make sure that the Disable Spindle Relays checkbox is unchecked. We don't want mach3 to output a signal for a relay since the spindle will start up and turn off within the VFD and not from an external relay.

Next, go to the HuanyangVFD settings by clicking on Menu -> plugin control -> HuanyangVFD. Set the parameters to the same settings you put into the VFD programming. The com port will be shown as new hardward when you plug in the USB FTDI device. A little bubble will be displayed at the bottom right where it will notify you that a new device is being installed (be patient while windows assigns a com port). Alternatively, you can use the windows device manager to see which port was set for the new USB FTDI device). You may need to restart mach3 several times until you get the correct information displayed in the PD001 and PD002 fields. When the com port is correct and the other parameters, like baud and VFD address is the same as you entered in the programming, then the PD001 and PD002 will show the number 2, otherwise, a 99 will appear which means that communication was not successful.

You can now control the on/off and RPM of the spindle using the RS485 communication between mach3 and the VFD.

The question was how to connect the spindle to the redfy. I did not receive a VFD.
I have the redFly system and a 2.2kW Spindle - 110V how do i connect the spindle?

If you received a spindle without a VFD, please contact us asap. Our spindle will not work without a VFD.

Hi, how is this setup in mach4?

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how do I connect my spindle to mach3 so mach3 can control it

• How can I make my memory better?

Use Transcranial direct current stimulation. This technique is used by DARPA and the military to better identify enemy military vehicles. The person in control of a drone, or UAV is given this tDCS and the identification becomes enhanced. This excites the savant features of the brain.

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How can I make my memory better?

• How can I change my account's email?

Re-register and then send an email to me with your name for any order that you have in the system and I will assign the new email to your customer record so you can see your orders in the "My Accounts" section of the website.

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How can I change my account's email?

• How can I to connect a signal to turn on a mist in a USB board? Thank you

You will need a 24V relay to control mist using the Mach3 USB breakout board. The wiring diagram (link below) will show one of the output terminals (O1, O2, O3 or O4) connected to one of the leads of the relay. The other lead is connected to the V+ to complete the circuit. The other part of the relay is used as a switch to control the mist on/off.

Wiring diagram: https://www.buildyourcnc.com/Documents/Electric%20Wiring%20Diagram.pdf

Mach3 USB Breakout Board for CNC Routers: https://buildyourcnc.com/item/electronicsAndMotors-electronic-component-breakout-Mach3-USB-Board

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How can I to connect a signal to turn on a mist in a USB board? Thank you

• CONVERT BLACKFOOT 3D PRINTER

To convert our CNC machine into a 3D printer, an extruder would need to be attached to the z-axis. The extruder could be added next to the spindle, or the spindle can be removed and the extruder replace the spindle.

The former would be an interesting combination where you would be able to extrude plastic and then run the spindle afterwards to do some finishing passes; however, the weight of the spindle would reduce the performance. Without the spindle, the z-axis will move with reduced inertia.

The electronics would be mostly the same with the addition of an extruder controller and a main controller board to control the existing drivers.

You can find all of the 3D printer parts here:
https://buildyourcnc.com/3DPrinterComponents.aspx

If you need help with fashioning a mount for the FDM extruder, please let us know.

User response:
Yes what type of mount would I need for the FDM extruder ? Thanks Gary

User response:
Could you be a little more specific on what type of main board I'll need to purchase the board I'm using now for my router is a serial port interface purchased from you. Thanks Gary

BYCNC response:

The 3d printing board we sell works with an Arduino Mega 2560. We sell the Arduino here:

https://buildyourcnc.com/Item/3D-Printer-Component-electronicsAndMotors-electronic-component-arduino-mega-2560-FDMElectronics

and the board here:

https://buildyourcnc.com/Item/3D-Printer-Component-electronicsAndMotors-3d-printer-mainboard-FDMElectronics-3dprintermainboard

We sell the extruder itself here:

https://buildyourcnc.com/item/3D-Printer-Component-extruder

You can manufacture the mount yourself using the BlackFoot, or you can contact us directly with your requirements and we would be happy to prepare a custom quote.

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CONVERT BLACKFOOT 3D PRINTER

• HOW CAN I KNOW MUCH WEIGHT MY MOTOR CARRY?

There are two main questions that we can answer with respect to motor torque and the mechanical advantage of lead screws, 1) What torque motor do you need to lift a particular weight, or 2) What maximum weight will my motor torque be able to lift.

This formula uses Newtons (N) as it's final unit. Use this with the included radius (R) to determine the torque. Newtons can easily be converted to lbs or ounces using online conversions.

Effort = Sf + (Load/(2 x pi x (R/p) x Se))

where:
p = pitch of the screw
Se = screw efficiency = Standard lead screw will be between 20% (.2) and 40% (.4)
Sf = static force. This is the force that is needed to start the movement. The number may be eliminated, but it is good to use a number in the 5 N to 20 N range.
Load = the expected load that the effort will need to carry (i.e., the router and the included axis assembly that the motor will need to lift)
R = radius of the lead screw

This formula is based on the "law of the machine"

The final effort amount with its unit of newtons and R will be the torque. For example, if the effort comes to 100 N (newtons) and the R is .5 inches, then you can assume that the effort is 50 N-in since it would take twice the effort to turn form the one inch mark from the center of the shaft.

Example:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 13 = .08 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .08) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 12.5 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (15.7))
Effort = 5 N + (5.73 N)
Effort = 10.7 N = 2.4 lbs = 38.4 oz-in

I am putting the oz-in on the end because the formula considers the distance from the center of the shaft to be one inch.

Therefore, a 425 oz-in motor would be able to lift a 20.2 lb Router with its accompanying assembly. If the assembly and router is heavier, plug in the numbers and determine the effort required.

With a bit of algebra, the formula can be rewritten to find the load:

Load = (Effort - Sf) x (2 x pi x (R/p) x Se)

Another formula that does not consider friction at all:

Effort = (Load x p) / (2 x pi x R)

Lets see if we get similar results:

Effort = (20 lb x .08 inches) / (2 x 3.14 x 1)
Effort = 1.6 / 6.28 = .255 lbs = 4.08 oz-in

The results from both formulas appear to be very small because a 13 TPI screw will have enormous mechanical advantage.

It is evident that the first formula that does consider friction that we are loosely estimating is far more conservative than the second formula. Either way, even the most conservative formula shows that the 425 oz-in motor will handle very large weights. If you are using a lead screw with only two turns per inch, .5 inch pitch, you can determine the requirements with the first formula.

Example for a 10 TPI 5 start (2 turns per inch) lead screw:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 2 = .5 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .5) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 2 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2.512))
Effort = 5 N + (35.83 N)
Effort = 40.828 N = 9.18 lbs = 146.88 oz-in

Customer Response:
thank you so much

how do i calculate torque of stepper motor if lead screw coupled to motor shaft and load applied by lead screw on plate is 100 kg by vertically

Pls

1m 16mmdiameter ball screws calculations

What is the max load that 2 NEMA 17 stepper motors (spaced 2 feet apart, both will be pushing up on the same gantry) can lift while using a rod with the following specifications T8 OD 8mm Pitch 2mm Lead 4mm for each motor.

1

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HOW CAN I KNOW MUCH WEIGHT MY MOTOR CARRY?

• How can I make LinuxCNC control a spindle?

LinuxCNC has excellent documents; however, I would like to offer our help in case you don't understand the information on that page. So, please use this FAQ (Question #: 13233) to state your questions by submitting additional information below.

The LinuxCNC spindle control page is found here: http://linuxcnc.org/docs/html/examples/spindle.html

After reading the LinuxCNC page my first questions would be can the spindle be controlled by PWM signal? Also, what pin on the parallel port would I set to Spindle Enable and FRW?

To connect your computer to the VFD, use a USB to RS-485 interface. RS-485 is just a serial interface protocol that uses standard 0 to +5 voltage TTL signal levels for communication (as opposed to RS-232 which uses -12v and +12 for signal level changes).

Get a high quality interface to reduce any issues during the process. The VFD should have two terminals labeled RS+ and RS-. The USB to RS-485 adapter should have this labeled on it as well so the connections should be relatively straight forward.

In the VFD parameters:
PD001: 2 to accept RS485 commands
PD002: 2 to accept frequency comands
PD163: 1 to RS485 slave address:1
PD164: 1 RS485 baud rate 9600
PD165: 3 8bit, no parity, 1 stop bit

Make sure LinuxCNC is also set accordingly:

The PIN14 and PIN16 in the stepconf wizard should be set to unused because you don't want LinuxCNC to be outputting unnecessary signals.

In the options step of the stepconf wizard:
- Check the Include Halui user interface component.
- Check the Include custom PyVCP GUI panel.
- Check Spindle speed display

You will want to edit the custom.hal text file located in the folder that was created from the stepconf wizard. Add these following lines:
loadusr -Wn vfd hy_vfd -n vfd -d /dev/ttyUSB0 -p none -r 9600
net spindle-cmd-rpm-abs => vfd.speed-command
net spindle-cw motion.spindle-forward => vfd.spindle-forward
net spindle-ccw motion.spindle-reverse => vfd.spindle-reverse
net on motion.spindle-on => vfd.spindle-on

The dev folder in linux is typically used for interfacing devices and peripherals to the computer as these devices are communicated by simple memory addresses and these files are linked directly to these addresses.

Under the custom_postgui.hal file, change this line:

from: sets spindle-at-speed true
to: net spindle-at-speed => cfd.spindle_at_speed

and add the line:

setp vfd.enable 1

When you start LinuxCNC, you will a spindle section with the reverse and forward buttons, a stop button and - and + buttons. Use these buttons to conform that the spindle is functioning properly. The spindle speed indicator in LinuxCNC will show the spindle speed and you can confirm that this is equal to the speed indicated on the VFD.

Credit for this helpful information goes to:

Additional information was also added by us to provide a better understanding.

linuxcnc利用MACH3 接口板 BL-MACH-V1.1的一路经光耦隔离的 0-10V 模拟电压输出，可以控制具有相应模拟接口的变频器，控制主轴转速。输出口为 P1 口，如何利用这个p1口与变频器进行接线来控制主轴转速，并对hal文件配置代码进行书写

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How can I make LinuxCNC control a spindle?

• How can I connect an inductive proximity sensor to the Mach3 USB controller?

I would suggest using the NPN proximity sensor for the Mach3 USB or the Pokeys57cnc. The proximity sensors have a top DC voltage limit of 30 volts, so it would be best to use the 24V power supply that is used to power the controller. Both controllers have a 24V power requirement, so that is convenient.

The blue wire of the proximity sensor is the GND wire and is connected to the 24V power supply's V- terminal. The brown wire is the positive wire and is connected to the V+ terminal of the 24V power supply. The black wire is the signal wire and is connected to the input terminal of the controller.

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How can I connect an inductive proximity sensor to the Mach3 USB controller?

• How can I determine which wires on my stepper motor bellong to A+ A- B+ or B-?

You can use a multimeter to determine the wires of the same coil (i.e A+ and A- belong to he same coil). The wires that are connected on the same coil will have relatively low resistance. A wire from one coil to another coil with have no continuity since the two coils are not touching each other.

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How can I determine which wires on my stepper motor bellong to A+ A- B+ or B-?

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