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### Question #: 14415

Question: How can I convert RPM to hertz Hz?

Current Solution

1 RPM = 1/60 Hz
1 RPM = 0.01666666 Hz.

So, say you wanted to know the Hz for 12,000 RPM

(12,000 Revolutions / Minute) / 60 = 200 Hz
or
12,000 RPM x 0.016666 = 200 Hz

If you needed to determine the RPM from the Hz, then

RPM = Hz x 60

So, say you wanted to know what RPM is for 400 Hz:

60 x 400 Hz = 24,000

Respond:

### Other Possible Solutions to this Question

• how can I convert my orinary drill press to a servo drill press?

There may be many ways to do this. My recommendation would be is to add an encoder to the shaft of the existing motor and connect that to a servo controller so you have closed loop control. This way, you have the torque from the pulleys in the top of the drill press.

how can I convert my orinary drill press to a servo drill press?

• how can I convert the whiteAnt from the 3D printer mode to the CNC milling mode?

To convert the whiteAnt to a CNC machine, you will want to lower the upper structure to the lowest position to create the most rigidity overall. You will see that there are many holes below the sides of the upper structure that are evenly spaced. This is so you can adjust this lower. You will also want to fasten the lower sides to a substrate (piece of wood, or something) with l-brackets or something that has a bit of adjustment capability. This will keep the sides more rigid as well. Use a Dremel for the spindle. If you want to use a another spindle, let me know and we can product a mount for that spindle since the Dremel has poor runout (TIR). This is important if you are wanting really precise milling.

how can I convert the whiteAnt from the 3D printer mode to the CNC milling mode?

• Can you convert a 3D print file to a file that can be ran on my cnc rounter and how would it have to be converted ?

Converting a 3D file to be used with a CNC machine will depend on the capability of the software you are using for developing machine operations (CAM software). For instance, if you use CAMBAM and the operation will consider a typical 3 axis CNC machine without a 4th axis, you would simply load the 3D file (.3ds or .stl) and apply a 3D profile machining operation on the 3D object. No conversion is necessary.

Check the capabilities of the CAM software you are using. You may just be able to load up the 3D file and start using it.

If you don't have your 3D file in the specified format (i.e. .3ds or .stl) then you will need to find a converter to convert the file into the file format that is compatible with your CAM software which should be relatively easy to find on the internet for free.

• How can I convert from Xylotex to yours, four axis with limit switches. Have parallel PC and steppers on machine.

Sure, the USB interface has a place for 4 axes of limit switches.

Each axis can have two limit switches: one for the ++ (positive) end and one for the -- (negative) end. The positive end would be the limit switch at the end of the machine that, say the machine has a 4'x8' area, reaches a bit after the 8 foot mark. The negative end would be the limit switch behind the 0 foot location behind the origin. If the origin is in the middle, the negative would be at a little more than the -4 foot end and the positive would be at a bit more than the +4 foot end. Note that you can have more than one switch on each pin where the NC is connected in serial fashion and the NO is connected in parallel fashion (this can be seen on the diagram in the multiple limits switch section). The software configurations for the limits switches are under File -> Settings -> Limit.

A typical limit switch has three connections on it. These connections consist of COM (common), NC (normally closed) and NO (normally open). The COM would generally go to GND and the NC or the NO would go to the pin. If the NC is used, then the the switch is constantly connected until the switch is pushed (engaged) then the connection from the pin to gnd is broken (open). Use the settings in software to set whether in NC or NO configuration.

Let me know if this information was helpful (or not) by adding information to this question. Thanks.

User response:
Thank you very much for this helpful information. I'm still a little fuzzy on how the 6 limit switches physically connect to each other and to the USB breakout board. You've stated one switch (home) goes to positive and another switch (limit) goes to negative. Are all the GND prongs from all 6 switches connected to each other and going to GND on the breakout board, or no? And the NC prongs, how exactly are they connected to each other? And to the board? There has to be a diagram somewhere shows this visually, no? I don't know how to wire the switches in series or in parallel. I have already physically installed all the switches on the machine and ran the wires to where the board is. Now I just need to know where to plug these wires into the board. Also, taking into consideration that I'm using the Planet CNC software, the only settings I have pertaining to limit switches is "Enable/Disable" for each axis, and the actual limit for each axis. Nothing about NC or NO. Is that only in Mach3?
Thank you.

buildyourcnc response:
On the USB interface, the COM on the switch connects to GND and the NC or NO connects to the input pin (i.e. x++, y--, etc.)

Limit switch configuration is rather difficult to understand, especially with series and parallel. You can think of series as a single wire going from GND to the axis letter input terminal (i.e. X++ or X--). If the wire is broken, then the circuit is open (or the switch is engaged in a normally closed scenario). Normally closed is like an actual wire, and when engaged, the switch "opens" (breaks the wire). This is why we recommend in some systems that you can put many switches in series on a single pin. When one of the switches is engaged (breaking the connection) then the entire circuit of switches is broken and the machine stops.

In a parallel scenario, the state of the circuit is always broken until the one of the switches is engaged and the circuit is then closed or connected. The topology looks like a ladder. All the switches connect to both sides of the ladder and the switches are like the runs of the ladder (the horizontal bars that the feet are placed while climbing). Imagine all of the switches broken in this scenario (normally open). It would be like the ladder could be split in two, but if one of the ladder runs (switches) is closed by engaging it, then that run would connect both sides of the ladder and the two sides of the ladder would have a connection.

There is a diagram on the USB page of the various limit switch configurations. If you need more information (visual and/or otherwise), please let us know and we will immediately add that information to benefit everyone.

• How to I calculate RPM based on hertz displayed/set on the 2.2kw VFD (110V AC version)?

To calculate RPM use this formula, in which you will have to find RPM's when you have Hz.
1 RPM = 0.01666666667 Hz
Formula: 0.01666666667 × RPM = Hz
On our VFD if you select the >> button about 3-4 times, it will change from Hz, A, or ROTT.
When the LED's are lit on Power, FOR, and ROTT, you should be able to see the RPM the spindle is running at, our maximum setting for these spindles is 400Hz / 24000 RPM.

How to I calculate RPM based on hertz displayed/set on the 2.2kw VFD (110V AC version)?

• How do you set up Frequency converter for 2.2kw spindle?

Ideally, the spindle VFD should use an actual 220V socket that contains the minimum amp fuse that will allow the appropriate draw for all of the items that will be plugged into that socket. If you elect to use a boost converter, the 2.2kW spindle VFD will need a 2200 watts or more.

My brother is using 1000W and told me his spindle is working just fine. Is it safe to use 1000W ?

I still can't recommend using a 1000W converter.

How do you set up Frequency converter for 2.2kw spindle?

• I HAVE BLACKTOE 4.1 WITH PORTER CABLE 890 ROUTER.TO CONVERT TO SPINDLE(2.2KW) CAN JUST CHANGE THE MOUNT?

If you would like to use a spindle rather than a router on your existing CNC, we will send you another set of components that will allow the spindle to be mounted properly which includes the z-axis rails, rail support, spindle mounts and the dust shoe components. You can find this item to purchase here: https://www.buildyourcnc.com/category/z-axis

I HAVE BLACKTOE 4.1 WITH PORTER CABLE 890 ROUTER.TO CONVERT TO SPINDLE(2.2KW) CAN JUST CHANGE THE MOUNT?

• HOW CAN MOUNT THE EXTRUDER TO WHITEANT

Mounting the extruder to the whiteAnt can be done a couple of ways. One is to take the 4 mounting holes located at the lower portion of the z-axis rail support and use long screws protruding out. Take a thinner material and drill the four holes matching the locations of the 4 screws and screw on nuts to hold it in place. The other option would be to use the metal bracket and fasten to the edge of the rail support.

HOW CAN MOUNT THE EXTRUDER TO WHITEANT

• I have blacktoe 4.1 with porter cable 890 router.To convert to spindle(2.2kw) can I just change the mount?

If you would like to use a spindle rather than a router on your existing CNC, we will send you another set of components that will allow the spindle to be mounted properly which includes the z-axis rails, rail support, spindle mounts and the dust shoe components. You can find this item to purchase here: https://www.buildyourcnc.com/category/z-axis

• wire size to connect Frequency converter to 2.2 KW Router?

We use 16 AWG (American Wire Gauge) to connect the 2.2kW Spindle to the VFD (Variable Frequency Drive also called the inverter. Since there are three coils, the 2.2kW (2200 watt) spindle will draw 10 amps total or 3.33 amps per coil. 16 AWG will be more than enough capacity to handle 3.33 amps.

wire size to connect Frequency converter to 2.2 KW Router?

• HOW CAN I KNOW MUCH WEIGHT MY MOTOR CARRY?

There are two main questions that we can answer with respect to motor torque and the mechanical advantage of lead screws, 1) What torque motor do you need to lift a particular weight, or 2) What maximum weight will my motor torque be able to lift.

This formula uses Newtons (N) as it's final unit. Use this with the included radius (R) to determine the torque. Newtons can easily be converted to lbs or ounces using online conversions.

Effort = Sf + (Load/(2 x pi x (R/p) x Se))

where:
p = pitch of the screw
Se = screw efficiency = Standard lead screw will be between 20% (.2) and 40% (.4)
Sf = static force. This is the force that is needed to start the movement. The number may be eliminated, but it is good to use a number in the 5 N to 20 N range.
Load = the expected load that the effort will need to carry (i.e., the router and the included axis assembly that the motor will need to lift)

This formula is based on the "law of the machine"

The final effort amount with its unit of newtons and R will be the torque. For example, if the effort comes to 100 N (newtons) and the R is .5 inches, then you can assume that the effort is 50 N-in since it would take twice the effort to turn form the one inch mark from the center of the shaft.

Example:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 13 = .08 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .08) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 12.5 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (15.7))
Effort = 5 N + (5.73 N)
Effort = 10.7 N = 2.4 lbs = 38.4 oz-in

I am putting the oz-in on the end because the formula considers the distance from the center of the shaft to be one inch.

Therefore, a 425 oz-in motor would be able to lift a 20.2 lb Router with its accompanying assembly. If the assembly and router is heavier, plug in the numbers and determine the effort required.

With a bit of algebra, the formula can be rewritten to find the load:

Load = (Effort - Sf) x (2 x pi x (R/p) x Se)

Another formula that does not consider friction at all:

Effort = (Load x p) / (2 x pi x R)

Lets see if we get similar results:

Effort = (20 lb x .08 inches) / (2 x 3.14 x 1)
Effort = 1.6 / 6.28 = .255 lbs = 4.08 oz-in

The results from both formulas appear to be very small because a 13 TPI screw will have enormous mechanical advantage.

It is evident that the first formula that does consider friction that we are loosely estimating is far more conservative than the second formula. Either way, even the most conservative formula shows that the 425 oz-in motor will handle very large weights. If you are using a lead screw with only two turns per inch, .5 inch pitch, you can determine the requirements with the first formula.

Example for a 10 TPI 5 start (2 turns per inch) lead screw:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 2 = .5 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .5) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 2 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2.512))
Effort = 5 N + (35.83 N)
Effort = 40.828 N = 9.18 lbs = 146.88 oz-in

Customer Response:
thank you so much

how do i calculate torque of stepper motor if lead screw coupled to motor shaft and load applied by lead screw on plate is 100 kg by vertically

Pls

1m 16mmdiameter ball screws calculations

HOW CAN I KNOW MUCH WEIGHT MY MOTOR CARRY?

• how much weight can my stepping motor lift?

There are two main questions that we can answer with respect to motor torque and the mechanical advantage of lead screws, 1) What torque motor do you need to lift a particular weight, or 2) What maximum weight will my motor torque be able to lift.

This formula uses Newtons (N) as it's final unit. Use this with the included radius (R) to determine the torque. Newtons can easily be converted to lbs or ounces using online conversions.

Effort = Sf + (Load/(2 x pi x (R/p) x Se))

where:
p = pitch of the screw
Se = screw efficiency = Standard lead screw will be between 20% (.2) and 40% (.4)
Sf = static force. This is the force that is needed to start the movement. The number may be eliminated, but it is good to use a number in the 5 N to 20 N range.
Load = the expected load that the effort will need to carry (i.e., the router and the included axis assembly that the motor will need to lift)

This formula is based on the "law of the machine"

The final effort amount with its unit of newtons and R will be the torque. For example, if the effort comes to 100 N (newtons) and the R is .5 inches, then you can assume that the effort is 50 N-in since it would take twice the effort to turn form the one inch mark from the center of the shaft.

Example:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 13 = .08 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .08) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 12.5 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (15.7))
Effort = 5 N + (5.73 N)
Effort = 10.7 N = 2.4 lbs = 38.4 oz-in

I am putting the oz-in on the end because the formula considers the distance from the center of the shaft to be one inch.

Therefore, a 425 oz-in motor would be able to lift a 20.2 lb Router with its accompanying assembly. If the assembly and router is heavier, plug in the numbers and determine the effort required.

With a bit of algebra, the formula can be rewritten to find the load:

Load = (Effort - Sf) x (2 x pi x (R/p) x Se)

Another formula that does not consider friction at all:

Effort = (Load x p) / (2 x pi x R)

Lets see if we get similar results:

Effort = (20 lb x .08 inches) / (2 x 3.14 x 1)
Effort = 1.6 / 6.28 = .255 lbs = 4.08 oz-in

The results from both formulas appear to be very small because a 13 TPI screw will have enormous mechanical advantage.

It is evident that the first formula that does consider friction that we are loosely estimating is far more conservative than the second formula. Either way, even the most conservative formula shows that the 425 oz-in motor will handle very large weights. If you are using a lead screw with only two turns per inch, .5 inch pitch, you can determine the requirements with the first formula.

Example for a 10 TPI 5 start (2 turns per inch) lead screw:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 2 = .5 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .5) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 2 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2.512))
Effort = 5 N + (35.83 N)
Effort = 40.828 N = 9.18 lbs = 146.88 oz-in

Customer Response:
thank you so much

how do i calculate torque of stepper motor if lead screw coupled to motor shaft and load applied by lead screw on plate is 100 kg by vertically

Pls

1m 16mmdiameter ball screws calculations

how much weight can my stepping motor lift?

• How long it takes to ship to Toronto, Canada?

Unfortunately I am not able to give an estimate of shipping time. This is because there are multiple shipping options, Some of them cost more than others, but ensure the package arrives in a certain number of days. Others do not give a number of days, and many factors could change the length of shipping time, such as weather, or busy season. It would be best to choose an option you are comfortable with the price of, and then Google search the typical times it takes for that option to get to you, or call the shipping company and request that estimated time from them.

How long it takes to ship to Toronto, Canada?

• How long it takes to ship to Toronto, Canada?

Unfortunately I am not able to give an estimate of shipping time. This is because there are multiple shipping options, Some of them cost more than others, but ensure the package arrives in a certain number of days. Others do not give a number of days, and many factors could change the length of shipping time, such as weather, or busy season. It would be best to choose an option you are comfortable with the price of, and then Google search the typical times it takes for that option to get to you, or call the shipping company and request that estimated time from them.

How long it takes to ship to Toronto, Canada?

• How can I have two stepper motors on one axis

Yes, you can use 2 motors in the same axis output, however you will still need a driver for that motor! Also depending on the orientation on which you mount the motor you might have to invert the direction of the motor, and that will be simple by swapping the A+,A-, to the B+,B- locations and vice versa, from the driver to the motor wiring.

Also you can run a slave motor using another axis on the board, and setting it up in the Planet-CNC settings.

Planet-CNC/File/Settings/Axes, here you will enter 3 in the Number of Axes location, and then change the Function of the Axis 4 to Slave 1. There you will have the 4th axis or A-axis be a slave for the x-axis.
Slave 1 - X-Axis
Slave 2 - Y-Axis
Slave 3 - A-Axis
Slave 4 - B-Axis
Etc...

How can I have two stepper motors on one axis

• how can I exhaust the blacktooth co2 laser cutter

Exhausting the blackTooth laser cutter is a very important consideration and should be taken seriously, especially if you are cutting materials that give off toxic fumes when the material is burned. You will want a 4 inch hose to connect from the blackTooth to a blower, and another 4 inch hose to connect from the blower to the outside. The blower should be sufficient to provide completely negative pressure within the laser enclosure so there will be no escape of gasses.

The connections at the machine, at the blower and at the location the hose exhausts outside should be thoroughly checked for leaks. Use a gasket, or silicone. Once complete, try cutting a non-toxic material that will give off an odor (wood, or non-toxic plastic) and try the system and determine if the smell is present.

how can I exhaust the blacktooth co2 laser cutter

• Is 1000W voltage converter (110V to 220V) enough for 2.2kW spindle?

Ideally, the spindle VFD should use an actual 220V socket that contains the minimum amp fuse that will allow the appropriate draw for all of the items that will be plugged into that socket. If you elect to use a boost converter, the 2.2kW spindle VFD will need a 2200 watts or more.

My brother is using 1000W and told me his spindle is working just fine. Is it safe to use 1000W ?

I still can't recommend using a 1000W converter.

Is 1000W voltage converter (110V to 220V) enough for 2.2kW spindle?

• What would be needed to convert my blackfoot 4x8 into a 3d printer ?

To convert our CNC machine into a 3D printer, an extruder would need to be attached to the z-axis. The extruder could be added next to the spindle, or the spindle can be removed and the extruder replace the spindle.

The former would be an interesting combination where you would be able to extrude plastic and then run the spindle afterwards to do some finishing passes; however, the weight of the spindle would reduce the performance. Without the spindle, the z-axis will move with reduced inertia.

The electronics would be mostly the same with the addition of an extruder controller and a main controller board to control the existing drivers.

You can find all of the 3D printer parts here:
https://buildyourcnc.com/3DPrinterComponents.aspx

If you need help with fashioning a mount for the FDM extruder, please let us know.

User response:
Yes what type of mount would I need for the FDM extruder ? Thanks Gary

User response:
Could you be a little more specific on what type of main board I'll need to purchase the board I'm using now for my router is a serial port interface purchased from you. Thanks Gary

BYCNC response:

The 3d printing board we sell works with an Arduino Mega 2560. We sell the Arduino here:

https://buildyourcnc.com/Item/3D-Printer-Component-electronicsAndMotors-electronic-component-arduino-mega-2560-FDMElectronics

and the board here:

https://buildyourcnc.com/Item/3D-Printer-Component-electronicsAndMotors-3d-printer-mainboard-FDMElectronics-3dprintermainboard

We sell the extruder itself here:

https://buildyourcnc.com/item/3D-Printer-Component-extruder

You can manufacture the mount yourself using the BlackFoot, or you can contact us directly with your requirements and we would be happy to prepare a custom quote.

What would be needed to convert my blackfoot 4x8 into a 3d printer ?

• HOW CAN ENHANCE THE BLACKTOOTH?

Temperature probe monitor. Very valuable. This keeps you up to date on your coolant temperature levels.

Voltage meter. This will tell you the exact level of voltage/power you are running telling the laser to run at instead of an arbitrary mark on a drawn wheel around your POT.

Ammeter sensitive to 1mA. This will be sure your not over driving your tube and reducing it's life significantly.

Hour meter. This will tell you exactly how long your system has been 'on' giving you a more accurate bead on the length of your tubes life.

Exhaust fan upgrade. The current fan included is 100CFM. You can buy 120mm fans that push 250CFM and I have included a guide on how to go about doing this here. http://buildyourtools.com/phpBB3/viewto ... 8cdd1802bf

To push the exhaust fan even further, if you have the room/power, I would highly recommend investing in a 600+ CFM "Dust Collector" system. 250CFM is still not suffice to draw all the smoke that can come off of 3mm or 1/8 MDF cutting job.

A cutting surface. I bought myself a aluminum 'egg crate' mesh from my local HVAC company. They are used a cover for fluorescent lights and work great for low impact cutting surface. They come in 4'x8' sheets and are easily cut to fit. The other side is if you can find a steel honeycomb cutting bed to fit. These can be quite costly or fairly affordable depending where you are looking. The benefit of a steel honeycomb is you can use high power magnets to hold material down.