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### Question #: 14824

Question: will the signals to the motor effect motor tuning and calibration

Current Solution

In the customer service live, just enter "motor tuning" and it will give you a list of all the recommended or default settings for our machines. However the acceleration and velocity for the greenBull(other machines) will be an actual determination on your trials. You will want the highest possible acceleration and velocity without the motors stalling, so you can do increments of ten to be on the safe side, if it is too slow try increments of 25.

The steps per inch is dependent on the microstepping:
Steps/Inch for the x and y
Steps = 200 motor steps per revolution x 16 microsteps = 3200 steps
Inches = sprocket number of teeth x pitch of the sprocket = 14 x .25" = 3.5 inches
steps/inch = 3200 / 3.5 = 914.28
This is really a starting point. You will then need to use the mach3 calibration function to get the perfect steps/inch value. Use as long a measurement as possible when calibrating.

Velocity:
Start with a value of 1000 ipm. Increase this value with a relatively low acceleration at about 10. You will notice at a particular velocity that it will stall. This is your stall velocity. I would take the stall velocity and reduce it by about 30% to 50% which should give you a good final safe velocity.

Acceleration:
Once the velocity is found, raise the acceleration until it start to stall at a low velocity. Reduce the acceleration by about the same percentage to stick with a safe acceleration.

The acceleration is mostly dependent on torque (current) and the top speed is dependent on the amount of voltage.

Give some tests with all of the axes running at the same time. If you notice and stalling, reduce velocities and acceleration depending on when the stall happens (top end, or acceleration curve).

X-axis
“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”
Set to 5.43A, 1/16 Microstep
Dipswitches: 01100110 (“0”=down, “1”=up)
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in
Y-axis
“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”
Set to 5.43A, 1/16 Microstep
Dipswitches: 01100110
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in
Z-axis
“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”
Set to 5.43A, 1/4 Microstep
Dipswitches: 01100100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

4th axis

Respond:

### Other Possible Solutions to this Question

• MOTOR GOING TWO DIRECTION WHEN JUST PUSH UP. IT WILL GO DOWN AND THEN GOES AGAIN UP WITH THE SAME BUTTON.

Try slowing your feedrate down and increasing spindle RPMs. End-mills will leave a poor finish if you go too fast. Make sure your cutting depth isn't too much. Maybe the endmill or cutter is blunt? Could it be the feed direction of the cutter? Some materials need to be fed in a certain direction.

MOTOR GOING TWO DIRECTION WHEN JUST PUSH UP. IT WILL GO DOWN AND THEN GOES AGAIN UP WITH THE SAME BUTTON.

• HOW MANY STEPS PER INCH DO I SET IN MOTOR TUNING?

blueChick:

X-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 11001100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Y-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 11001100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Z-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 10101100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

blackToe:

X-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 11001100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Y-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 11001100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Z-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 10101100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

blackFoot:

X-axis
“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 11001100 (“0”=down, “1”=up)
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Y-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 11001100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Z-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 10101100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

greenBull:

X-axis
“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”
Set to 5.43A, 1/16 Microstep
Dipswitches: 01100110 (“0”=down, “1”=up)
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Y-axis
“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”
Set to 5.43A, 1/16 Microstep
Dipswitches: 01100110
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Z-axis
“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”
Set to 5.43A, 1/4 Microstep
Dipswitches: 01100100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Scratch-Build / Book-Build Kit:

X-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 10101100 (“0”=down, “1”=up)
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Y-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 10101100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Z-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 10101100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Scratch built/book CNC with NEMA 34 motors and CW8060 microstep driver

HOW MANY STEPS PER INCH DO I SET IN MOTOR TUNING?

• WHAT SETTINGS DO I USE IN MACH3 MOTOR TUNING?

blueChick:

X-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 11001100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Y-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 11001100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Z-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 10101100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

blackToe:

X-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 11001100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Y-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 11001100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Z-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 10101100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

blackFoot:

X-axis
“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 11001100 (“0”=down, “1”=up)
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Y-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 11001100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Z-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 10101100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

greenBull:

X-axis
“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”
Set to 5.43A, 1/16 Microstep
Dipswitches: 01100110 (“0”=down, “1”=up)
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Y-axis
“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”
Set to 5.43A, 1/16 Microstep
Dipswitches: 01100110
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Z-axis
“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”
Set to 5.43A, 1/4 Microstep
Dipswitches: 01100100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Scratch-Build / Book-Build Kit:

X-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 10101100 (“0”=down, “1”=up)
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Y-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 10101100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Z-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 10101100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Scratch built/book CNC with NEMA 34 motors and CW8060 microstep driver

WHAT SETTINGS DO I USE IN MACH3 MOTOR TUNING?

• WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A PRINTER CABLE PORT AND USB MOTOR KITS

The parallel (printer cable) port is uses the computer as its main source of pulse trains to operate the motor driver directly. Parallel ports are a direct connection from the processor commonly referred to as GPIO pins (General Purpose I/O pins) and provides a convenient and powerful way to interface with the computer. The parallel breakout board is included in those kits only to condition those signals for use with the drivers.

The USB serves at the actual controller, sending the pulse trains, but the computer sends simple human readable instructions to the USB controller to tell the controller how to send pulses.

The non-technical differences that may serve as the most important information to you is that the parallel configurations allow for a wider variety of industry standard software that can be used to control the cnc machine. The USB that we offer requires the operator to use a software called Planet-CNC software which is a very well made and feature full cnc control software.

USB Motion controller breakout board work with planet cnc software?

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A PRINTER CABLE PORT AND USB MOTOR KITS

• WHAT EFFECTS OF CELL PHONES WILL THERE BE ON YOUNGER PEOPLE OPPOSED TO OLDER PEOPLE? THE AGE OR STATE DEVELOPMENT EFFECT DANGERS A PHONE?

Physical size of the subject affects the fraction of the total radiofrequency energy that is absorbed in the body. To account for this known effect, the maximum permissible exposure standards for radiofrequency energy were set for the worst-case condition, that is assuming the body size for maximal absorption at a given frequency. Thus the maximum permissible exposure standards are fully protective for bodies of different sizes. For more detailed information, see the answers and the cited references to questions 79, 109, 694, and 893 under the Nonionizing Radiation section of the Health Physics Society Ask The Expert Web page. Gary H. Zeman, ScD, CHP

WHAT EFFECTS OF CELL PHONES WILL THERE BE ON YOUNGER PEOPLE OPPOSED TO OLDER PEOPLE? THE AGE OR STATE DEVELOPMENT EFFECT DANGERS A PHONE?

• WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PARALLEL AND USB ELECTRONICS COMBOS MOTOR KITS

The parallel (printer cable) port is uses the computer as its main source of pulse trains to operate the motor driver directly. Parallel ports are a direct connection from the processor commonly referred to as GPIO pins (General Purpose I/O pins) and provides a convenient and powerful way to interface with the computer. The parallel breakout board is included in those kits only to condition those signals for use with the drivers.

The USB serves at the actual controller, sending the pulse trains, but the computer sends simple human readable instructions to the USB controller to tell the controller how to send pulses.

The non-technical differences that may serve as the most important information to you is that the parallel configurations allow for a wider variety of industry standard software that can be used to control the cnc machine. The USB that we offer requires the operator to use a software called Planet-CNC software which is a very well made and feature full cnc control software.

USB Motion controller breakout board work with planet cnc software?

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PARALLEL AND USB ELECTRONICS COMBOS MOTOR KITS

• WHAT MOTOR TUNING SETTINGS?

blueChick:

X-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 11001100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Y-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 11001100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Z-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 10101100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

blackToe:

X-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 11001100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Y-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 11001100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Z-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 10101100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

blackFoot:

X-axis
“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 11001100 (“0”=down, “1”=up)
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Y-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/16 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 11001100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1422.22 steps/in

Z-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 10101100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

greenBull:

X-axis
“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”
Set to 5.43A, 1/16 Microstep
Dipswitches: 01100110 (“0”=down, “1”=up)
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Y-axis
“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”
Set to 5.43A, 1/16 Microstep
Dipswitches: 01100110
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 914.29 steps/in

Z-axis
“CW8060 (6.0A) Driver”
Set to 5.43A, 1/4 Microstep
Dipswitches: 01100100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Scratch-Build / Book-Build Kit:

X-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 10101100 (“0”=down, “1”=up)
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Y-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 10101100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Z-axis
“CW230 (3.0A) Driver”
Set to 1/4 Microstep, 2.7A
Dipswitches: 10101100
Mach3 Motor Tuning: 1600 steps/in

Scratch built/book CNC with NEMA 34 motors and CW8060 microstep driver

WHAT MOTOR TUNING SETTINGS?

• I HAVE ONE OF YOUR SMALLER STEPPER MOTORS RUNNING MY X AXIS BRIDGE CRANE AND IF IT IS MOVED TO FAST THE MOTOR SOUNDS LIKE SKIPPING STEPS WILL 651OZ REQUIRE A DIFFERENT POWER SUPPLY CONTROLER?

Yes, the 651 oz/in motor requires a driver that is compatible to the motors (the motor will draw 6 amps max and the driver paired with this motor will be able to allow for a 6 amp draw). I would also recommend a 36 volt power supply for better high velocity performance.

I HAVE ONE OF YOUR SMALLER STEPPER MOTORS RUNNING MY X AXIS BRIDGE CRANE AND IF IT IS MOVED TO FAST THE MOTOR SOUNDS LIKE SKIPPING STEPS WILL 651OZ REQUIRE A DIFFERENT POWER SUPPLY CONTROLER?

• HAVE PORTER CABLE 7518 ROUTER ON MY CNC AND WOULD LIKE TO KNOW IF YOUR ER20 COLLET NUT, FOR THE CABLE, WILL FIT ROUTER.

Yes, our porter cable collets and nuts will fit the porter cable 7518.

HAVE PORTER CABLE 7518 ROUTER ON MY CNC AND WOULD LIKE TO KNOW IF YOUR ER20 COLLET NUT, FOR THE CABLE, WILL FIT ROUTER.

• HOW MUCH MOTOR CABLE SHOULD PURCHASE FOR THE BLUECHICK

The recommended total length of motor cable should be 15 feet for the blueChick v4.2

Z - 6 feet
Y - 5 feet
X- 4 feet

20 AWG 4 conductor

If your drivers will be positioned farther from the machine, you may need longer cable.

HOW MUCH MOTOR CABLE SHOULD PURCHASE FOR THE BLUECHICK

• WHAT DOES THE GREENBULL KIT INCLUDE AND DO I NEED TO INCLUDE?

The greenBull 4X comes with all of the components and electronics to assemble the gantry of the machine. You will need to build the table. We provide the rails and roller chain for the X-axis (along the length of the table for full 8 feet of travel). You will need to provide some wire to connect the electronics and a computer to run the machine. You will also need to purchase the software that you will need to run the machine that matches how you will apply the machine. We suggest the mach3 control program. The CAM program is up to you as there are many options out there.

WHAT DOES THE GREENBULL KIT INCLUDE AND DO I NEED TO INCLUDE?

• I BOUGHT YOUR BOOK AND WAS HOPEING IT HAD PLANS OR DIMENTIONS ON HOW TO BUILD A CNC HOLD 4X8 SHEET OF PLY. WILL THE IN SCALE UP?

BYCNC Response:
The book build was intended to be 20 inches x 40 inches. Larger machines were designed after the book build was introduced so customers would have the option to go bigger than what the book offered. Check out our larger machines on the website as the machines sizes range from 1 foot x 3 feet all the way up to 6 feet x 12+ feet.

User Response:
I'm not wanting to spend \$3,000+ on a machine, I want to build one that will do a 4x8 sheet of wood. Will the plans in the book scale up?

BYCNC Response:
It is possible to scale the book build up, but the rigidity of the gantry would be questionable at that span, even if the height of the gantry structure were to be increased. The gantry design would need to be modified to become a box shape rather than a flat configuration. The kits on the site were design for those wanting a larger machine.

I BOUGHT YOUR BOOK AND WAS HOPEING IT HAD PLANS OR DIMENTIONS ON HOW TO BUILD A CNC HOLD 4X8 SHEET OF PLY. WILL THE IN SCALE UP?

• HOW LONG SHOULD THE MOTOR CABLES BE FOR BLACKTOE

The motor cables for the blackToe are as follows:

Total 30 feet

X - 9
Y - 10
Z - 11

HOW LONG SHOULD THE MOTOR CABLES BE FOR BLACKTOE

• WHAT LENGTH OF MOTOR CABLE SHOULD BE USED WTIH THE BLUECHICK V4.2

The recommended total length of motor cable should be 15 feet for the blueChick v4.2

Z - 6 feet
Y - 5 feet
X- 4 feet

20 AWG 4 conductor

If your drivers will be positioned farther from the machine, you may need longer cable.

WHAT LENGTH OF MOTOR CABLE SHOULD BE USED WTIH THE BLUECHICK V4.2

• DO YOU SUPPLY THE MALE PORTION OF MOTOR CONTROL CABLES WITH REDLEAF?

Yes and properly soldered.

20

DO YOU SUPPLY THE MALE PORTION OF MOTOR CONTROL CABLES WITH REDLEAF?

• I JUST BOUGHT THE 3 AXIS W/HEAVY GANTRY, WILL MACH 4 RUN WELL WITH THIS, AND HOW LARGE CAN GO CUT AREA

Yes Mach3 is a great program. Our 3 axis is 6'X12'X3'using all BYCNC components (incl. redsprout)

I JUST BOUGHT THE 3 AXIS W/HEAVY GANTRY, WILL MACH 4 RUN WELL WITH THIS, AND HOW LARGE CAN GO CUT AREA

• IS THERE A WAY TO GET RID OF THE PARALLEL CABLE AND SOMEHOW USE USB ?

If you select the Settings Page and select or tick Auto Limit Override - this will allow you to back off the switch.

limit and home switch

IS THERE A WAY TO GET RID OF THE PARALLEL CABLE AND SOMEHOW USE USB ?

• THE BLACKTOE REQUIRES HOW MUCH MOTOR CABLE

The motor cables for the blackToe are as follows:

Total 30 feet

X - 9
Y - 10
Z - 11

THE BLACKTOE REQUIRES HOW MUCH MOTOR CABLE

• HOW DO I DETERMINE THE AMOUNT OF SCREW WEIGTH THAT MY MOTOR CAN HANDLE

There are two main questions that we can answer with respect to motor torque and the mechanical advantage of lead screws, 1) What torque motor do you need to lift a particular weight, or 2) What maximum weight will my motor torque be able to lift.

This formula uses Newtons (N) as it's final unit. Use this with the included radius (R) to determine the torque. Newtons can easily be converted to lbs or ounces using online conversions.

Effort = Sf + (Load/(2 x pi x (R/p) x Se))

where:
p = pitch of the screw
Se = screw efficiency = Standard lead screw will be between 20% (.2) and 40% (.4)
Sf = static force. This is the force that is needed to start the movement. The number may be eliminated, but it is good to use a number in the 5 N to 20 N range.
Load = the expected load that the effort will need to carry (i.e., the router and the included axis assembly that the motor will need to lift)

This formula is based on the "law of the machine"

The final effort amount with its unit of newtons and R will be the torque. For example, if the effort comes to 100 N (newtons) and the R is .5 inches, then you can assume that the effort is 50 N-in since it would take twice the effort to turn form the one inch mark from the center of the shaft.

Example:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 13 = .08 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .08) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 12.5 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (15.7))
Effort = 5 N + (5.73 N)
Effort = 10.7 N = 2.4 lbs = 38.4 oz-in

I am putting the oz-in on the end because the formula considers the distance from the center of the shaft to be one inch.

Therefore, a 425 oz-in motor would be able to lift a 20.2 lb Router with its accompanying assembly. If the assembly and router is heavier, plug in the numbers and determine the effort required.

With a bit of algebra, the formula can be rewritten to find the load:

Load = (Effort - Sf) x (2 x pi x (R/p) x Se)

Another formula that does not consider friction at all:

Effort = (Load x p) / (2 x pi x R)

Lets see if we get similar results:

Effort = (20 lb x .08 inches) / (2 x 3.14 x 1)
Effort = 1.6 / 6.28 = .255 lbs = 4.08 oz-in

The results from both formulas appear to be very small because a 13 TPI screw will have enormous mechanical advantage.

It is evident that the first formula that does consider friction that we are loosely estimating is far more conservative than the second formula. Either way, even the most conservative formula shows that the 425 oz-in motor will handle very large weights. If you are using a lead screw with only two turns per inch, .5 inch pitch, you can determine the requirements with the first formula.

Example for a 10 TPI 5 start (2 turns per inch) lead screw:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 2 = .5 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .5) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 2 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2.512))
Effort = 5 N + (35.83 N)
Effort = 40.828 N = 9.18 lbs = 146.88 oz-in

Customer Response:
thank you so much

how do i calculate torque of stepper motor if lead screw coupled to motor shaft and load applied by lead screw on plate is 100 kg by vertically

Pls

1m 16mmdiameter ball screws calculations

What is the max load that 2 NEMA 17 stepper motors (spaced 2 feet apart, both will be pushing up on the same gantry) can lift while using a rod with the following specifications T8 OD 8mm Pitch 2mm Lead 4mm for each motor.

HOW DO I DETERMINE THE AMOUNT OF SCREW WEIGTH THAT MY MOTOR CAN HANDLE

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