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### Question #: 14153

Question: With a 1/2 lead screw what is the optimal steps for the stepper motor driver 1/16, 1/8, 1/4 etc

Current Solution

We typically use a 1/4 microstepping for lead screws, but you want to determine the microstepping only after you determine what resolution you want on that axis of the machine.

The formula:
Resolution is steps per inch or steps per milimeter

I will go over this using steps/inch:
steps = motor steps x driver microstepping
inch = the amount of travel with one full stepper motor rotation

In the case of our 1/2" 5 start 10 TPI lead screw, the axis will travel .5 inches with one stepper motor rotation.

Let's use 1/4 microstepping (4 microsteps for each stepper motor step)

Therefore:
(200 steps x 4) / .5 inches =
800 steps / .5 inches =
1600 steps/inch

Now let's use 1/2 microstepping (2 mistrosteps)

(200 steps x 2) / .5 inches =
400 steps / .5 inches =
800 steps/inch

Remember that increasing microsteps, the torque is also reduced, but the smoothness from the motor is increased.

Respond:

### Other Possible Solutions to this Question

• I am asking what to set my steps per using your kit stepper motors and a 1/2"x13 lead screw with Mach3

Here is the formula for steps/inch (steps per inch)

Steps = how many steps for a full ration of the motor = standard motor steps x number of microsteps for each step
Standard motor steps for our stepping motors is 200 steps per revolution.
Microsteps are selected on the driver and are shown as full, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32 etc... Use the denominator for the number of microsteps per step.

Inches = how far the travel is for one full rotation of the motor. For the 1/2" - 13 TPI (threads per inch), the travel length will be 1"/13 or .076923". So, for one revolution of the motor, the travel distance will be .076923 inches.

So, the steps = 200 * microsteps, let's make this 1/4 just for the formula.
The inches will be .076923. Plug those into the formula:
Steps / inch = (200 * 4) / .076923 This can also be written as:
200 * 4 / (1 / 13) = 10,400

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I am asking what to set my steps per using your kit stepper motors and a 1/2"x13 lead screw with Mach3

• I need the calculation to determine the stepper motor torque to find the load that it can lift using a lead screw at 1/2" diameter with 13 TPI.

There are two main questions that we can answer with respect to motor torque and the mechanical advantage of lead screws, 1) What torque motor do you need to lift a particular weight, or 2) What maximum weight will my motor torque be able to lift.

This formula uses Newtons (N) as it's final unit. Use this with the included radius (R) to determine the torque. Newtons can easily be converted to lbs or ounces using online conversions.

Effort = Sf + (Load/(2 x pi x (R/p) x Se))

where:
p = pitch of the screw
Se = screw efficiency = Standard lead screw will be between 20% (.2) and 40% (.4)
Sf = static force. This is the force that is needed to start the movement. The number may be eliminated, but it is good to use a number in the 5 N to 20 N range.
Load = the expected load that the effort will need to carry (i.e., the router and the included axis assembly that the motor will need to lift)
R = radius of the lead screw

This formula is based on the "law of the machine"

The final effort amount with its unit of newtons and R will be the torque. For example, if the effort comes to 100 N (newtons) and the R is .5 inches, then you can assume that the effort is 50 N-in since it would take twice the effort to turn form the one inch mark from the center of the shaft.

Example:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 13 = .08 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .08) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 12.5 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (15.7))
Effort = 5 N + (5.73 N)
Effort = 10.7 N = 2.4 lbs = 38.4 oz-in

I am putting the oz-in on the end because the formula considers the distance from the center of the shaft to be one inch.

Therefore, a 425 oz-in motor would be able to lift a 20.2 lb Router with its accompanying assembly. If the assembly and router is heavier, plug in the numbers and determine the effort required.

With a bit of algebra, the formula can be rewritten to find the load:

Load = (Effort - Sf) x (2 x pi x (R/p) x Se)

Another formula that does not consider friction at all:

Effort = (Load x p) / (2 x pi x R)

Lets see if we get similar results:

Effort = (20 lb x .08 inches) / (2 x 3.14 x 1)
Effort = 1.6 / 6.28 = .255 lbs = 4.08 oz-in

The results from both formulas appear to be very small because a 13 TPI screw will have enormous mechanical advantage.

It is evident that the first formula that does consider friction that we are loosely estimating is far more conservative than the second formula. Either way, even the most conservative formula shows that the 425 oz-in motor will handle very large weights. If you are using a lead screw with only two turns per inch, .5 inch pitch, you can determine the requirements with the first formula.

Example for a 10 TPI 5 start (2 turns per inch) lead screw:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 2 = .5 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .5) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 2 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2.512))
Effort = 5 N + (35.83 N)
Effort = 40.828 N = 9.18 lbs = 146.88 oz-in

Customer Response:
thank you so much

how do i calculate torque of stepper motor if lead screw coupled to motor shaft and load applied by lead screw on plate is 100 kg by vertically

Pls

1m 16mmdiameter ball screws calculations

What is the max load that 2 NEMA 17 stepper motors (spaced 2 feet apart, both will be pushing up on the same gantry) can lift while using a rod with the following specifications T8 OD 8mm Pitch 2mm Lead 4mm for each motor.

1

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I need the calculation to determine the stepper motor torque to find the load that it can lift using a lead screw at 1/2" diameter with 13 TPI.

• I need the calculation to determine the stepper motor torque to find the load that it can withstand in horizontal position using a lead screw at 1/2" diameter with 13 TPI.

There are two main questions that we can answer with respect to motor torque and the mechanical advantage of lead screws, 1) What torque motor do you need to lift a particular weight, or 2) What maximum weight will my motor torque be able to lift.

This formula uses Newtons (N) as it's final unit. Use this with the included radius (R) to determine the torque. Newtons can easily be converted to lbs or ounces using online conversions.

Effort = Sf + (Load/(2 x pi x (R/p) x Se))

where:
p = pitch of the screw
Se = screw efficiency = Standard lead screw will be between 20% (.2) and 40% (.4)
Sf = static force. This is the force that is needed to start the movement. The number may be eliminated, but it is good to use a number in the 5 N to 20 N range.
Load = the expected load that the effort will need to carry (i.e., the router and the included axis assembly that the motor will need to lift)
R = radius of the lead screw

This formula is based on the "law of the machine"

The final effort amount with its unit of newtons and R will be the torque. For example, if the effort comes to 100 N (newtons) and the R is .5 inches, then you can assume that the effort is 50 N-in since it would take twice the effort to turn form the one inch mark from the center of the shaft.

Example:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 13 = .08 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .08) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 12.5 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (15.7))
Effort = 5 N + (5.73 N)
Effort = 10.7 N = 2.4 lbs = 38.4 oz-in

I am putting the oz-in on the end because the formula considers the distance from the center of the shaft to be one inch.

Therefore, a 425 oz-in motor would be able to lift a 20.2 lb Router with its accompanying assembly. If the assembly and router is heavier, plug in the numbers and determine the effort required.

With a bit of algebra, the formula can be rewritten to find the load:

Load = (Effort - Sf) x (2 x pi x (R/p) x Se)

Another formula that does not consider friction at all:

Effort = (Load x p) / (2 x pi x R)

Lets see if we get similar results:

Effort = (20 lb x .08 inches) / (2 x 3.14 x 1)
Effort = 1.6 / 6.28 = .255 lbs = 4.08 oz-in

The results from both formulas appear to be very small because a 13 TPI screw will have enormous mechanical advantage.

It is evident that the first formula that does consider friction that we are loosely estimating is far more conservative than the second formula. Either way, even the most conservative formula shows that the 425 oz-in motor will handle very large weights. If you are using a lead screw with only two turns per inch, .5 inch pitch, you can determine the requirements with the first formula.

Example for a 10 TPI 5 start (2 turns per inch) lead screw:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 2 = .5 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .5) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 2 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2.512))
Effort = 5 N + (35.83 N)
Effort = 40.828 N = 9.18 lbs = 146.88 oz-in

Customer Response:
thank you so much

how do i calculate torque of stepper motor if lead screw coupled to motor shaft and load applied by lead screw on plate is 100 kg by vertically

Pls

1m 16mmdiameter ball screws calculations

What is the max load that 2 NEMA 17 stepper motors (spaced 2 feet apart, both will be pushing up on the same gantry) can lift while using a rod with the following specifications T8 OD 8mm Pitch 2mm Lead 4mm for each motor.

1

Click the link to add information to this solution:
I need the calculation to determine the stepper motor torque to find the load that it can withstand in horizontal position using a lead screw at 1/2" diameter with 13 TPI.

• Hi! can i order a 6 ft long 1/2'' Lead screw with the motor and the gears with it?

1/2" lead screw can be purchased in one length up to 77 inches (6 feet, 5 inches). Motors are found under the "Motion Electronics" menu, and gears can be found under "Mechanical Components".

Click the link to add information to this solution:
Hi! can i order a 6 ft long 1/2'' Lead screw with the motor and the gears with it?

• On the Book Build: I'm changing the 13TPI 1/2" lead screw with the 1/2" 10 TPI Acme screw with the anti backlash nut. This is for the Z axis only. What should I know about installing it and what are the numbers I need to plug into the motor tuning area.

The settings that will have to be change will be your steps per inch in motor tuning (mach 3), or settings/axes(planetCNC). But we do not have the actual numbers/specs that will fit your 10 TPI 5 start lead screw, here is a tutorial video which explains how to get the exact numbers you need! (

).
Here is a default setting that you might be able to tune and adjust accordingly: 1600 steps, accel 400.02, velocity 5.

• I cannot find a driver for the NEMA 14 Stepping Motor (17 oz-in 1/4" dual shaft) on your site, would something like the Pololu DRV8834 be okay? (I note that the stepper requires 2.7v)
• Hi, I need the lead screw and bearings for x/y/z axis of the CNC. What is the length of "1/2" Lead Screw per inch (Steel)"?

Depending on the size of your CNC machine, it will vary the length required for your application.
Please verify the CNC machine, and we can go into detail on the specific lengths or methods for the linear guide mechanics.

We sell our ACME Screw (1/2" per inch), also our longest length of ACME Screw is 76-3/4".

Click the link to add information to this solution:
Hi, I need the lead screw and bearings for x/y/z axis of the CNC. What is the length of "1/2" Lead Screw per inch (Steel)"?

• I just changed my X and Y to the ACME 1/2" 5 start lead screw. What are the motor tuning numbers. I have the book built machine.

The settings that will have to be change will be your steps per inch in motor tuning (mach 3), or settings/axes(planetCNC). But we do not have the actual numbers/specs that will fit your 10 TPI 5 start lead screw, here is a tutorial video which explains how to get the exact numbers you need! (

)

Click the link to add information to this solution:
I just changed my X and Y to the ACME 1/2" 5 start lead screw. What are the motor tuning numbers. I have the book built machine.

• [801] Is this enough rating for a Nema 34 motor with max 6 amps? Also what about a 220V 2200Watt Spindle?

For the NEMA 34 stepper motor with a maximum current of 6 amps, 18 AWG wire would technically be sufficient. According to the American Wire Gauge (AWG) standard, 18 AWG wire can handle up to around 10 amps of current in chassis wiring and around 16 amps in power transmission. If you are considering running a very long length of cable from the driver to the stepper motor, you may want to consider using 16 AWG.

As for the spindle, this wire gauge is well-suited. There are three phase shifts, each at 120 degrees and each conductor is carrying only 1/3 of the power. At 220v, 2200 watts / 220 V = 10 amps. 1/3 of 10 amps is 3.333 amps, so each conductor will be have a load of 3.33 amps.

Click the link to add information to this solution:
[801] Is this enough rating for a Nema 34 motor with max 6 amps? Also what about a 220V 2200Watt Spindle?

• BUILDING ONE OF YOUR GREENBULL 6X LONG AND 2.2 KILOWATT SPINDLE DOES NOT FIT. SEEMS LEAD SCREW YOU SENT WITH KIT IS SHORT 42" LOOKS LIKE IT NEEDS TO BE 5 OR 6 INCH LONGER. THIS CORRECT? WHAT THE NEEDED LENGTH FOR UNIT?

The leadscrew length for the greenBull long Z-axis is 47 inches.

• What is the flange diameter, and the flat to flat dimension on the spring loaded 1/2-10 lead screw nut?

Hi, the dimension flange thickness for the 1/2" 5 start 10 TPI antibacklash nut is 0.27 inches or 6.858 mm. The flange diameter is 1.5 inches or 38.1 mm. The flange has two flats that measure 1 inch or 25.4 mm from flat to flat.

The drawing can be seen here:
https://www.buildyourcnc.com/images/Antibacklash_nut_1_2_drawing-800.JPG

Or you can click on the drawing image on the product page:

Click the link to add information to this solution:
What is the flange diameter, and the flat to flat dimension on the spring loaded 1/2-10 lead screw nut?

• I HAVE ONE OF YOUR SMALLER STEPPER MOTORS RUNNING MY X AXIS BRIDGE CRANE AND IF IT IS MOVED TO FAST THE MOTOR SOUNDS LIKE SKIPPING STEPS WILL 651OZ REQUIRE A DIFFERENT POWER SUPPLY CONTROLER?

Yes, the 651 oz/in motor requires a driver that is compatible to the motors (the motor will draw 6 amps max and the driver paired with this motor will be able to allow for a 6 amp draw). I would also recommend a 36 volt power supply for better high velocity performance.

Click the link to add information to this solution:
I HAVE ONE OF YOUR SMALLER STEPPER MOTORS RUNNING MY X AXIS BRIDGE CRANE AND IF IT IS MOVED TO FAST THE MOTOR SOUNDS LIKE SKIPPING STEPS WILL 651OZ REQUIRE A DIFFERENT POWER SUPPLY CONTROLER?

• Please explain how to connect 2.5AMP stepper motor driver to USB board. All parts are from your store. Thanks

From the USB controller, the CP+ and CW+ are connected to the 5V terminal. The CP- is connected to the CP terminal of the driver and the CW- is connected to the CW terminal of the driver.

Click the link to add information to this solution:
Please explain how to connect 2.5AMP stepper motor driver to USB board. All parts are from your store. Thanks

• My stepper motor has little to no torque on anything less than 1/4 steps.. tested on two drivers verified to be working. Can this be remedied?

For our motors, you must verify the correct wiring for each.
425 oz-in motor: (Wiring: Red and Blue to A+, Yellow and Black to A-, White and Brown to B+ and Orange and Green to B-.)
651 oz-in motor: (Wiring: Red to A+, Green to A-, Yellow to B+ and Blue to B-).

Click the link to add information to this solution:
My stepper motor has little to no torque on anything less than 1/4 steps.. tested on two drivers verified to be working. Can this be remedied?

• If I order 19ft of the 1/2" lead screw will it come in three 6'5" lengths by default? This is what I need. Thanks

No they will not come in that length as a default, we would contact the buyer to ask specific lengths due to the total length purchased.

However if you order the 1/2" lead screw we can get them cut to the specific length you require, by contacting us here or call us at 281-815-7701.

Click the link to add information to this solution:
If I order 19ft of the 1/2" lead screw will it come in three 6'5" lengths by default? This is what I need. Thanks

• What are the overall dimensions of the 2.5A small stepper drivers? Is there a CAD model available?

The overall dimensions of our 2.5 modular stepper divers is:

L: 1.875"/ 47.625mm
W: 1.433"/ 36.3982mm
H: .585"/ 14.859mm (height might change due to different terminal block height (other we have on hand is .464"/ 11.7856mm))

Currently we do not have a CAD model on hand.

Click the link to add information to this solution:
What are the overall dimensions of the 2.5A small stepper drivers? Is there a CAD model available?

• Do you offer or can recommend a place where I can buy the Drive Pulley for NEMA 43 Stepper Motor (1586 oz-in 3/4" single shaft) 5.5 Amps?

We don't offer those drive pullies with a 3/4" bore at the moment. We can supply them if you are willing to wait. If so, what is the pulley pitch, how many teeth and the width of the belt.

Meant to say pulleys, not pullies.

Click the link to add information to this solution:
Do you offer or can recommend a place where I can buy the Drive Pulley for NEMA 43 Stepper Motor (1586 oz-in 3/4" single shaft) 5.5 Amps?

• What is the number of pole pairs and rotor inertia for NEMA 23 Stepping motor?

You can find the wiring diagram, and technical specifications for the NEMA 23 motor, on it's product page, found here,

https://www.buildyourcnc.com/Item/electronicsAndMotors-nema23-100ozin-newbiehack-motors-stepping_motors-100_ozin

There is a datasheet below the product description. This image will expand to be easier visible once clicked on.

Click the link to add information to this solution:
What is the number of pole pairs and rotor inertia for NEMA 23 Stepping motor?

• What is the 24VDC Power requirement for the Pokeys47CNC? 1A, 2A? ...I'm running a separate 36VDC PS to the Stepper drivers and a 24VDC PS to the Controller.

Polabs prepared step by step user guide for PoKeys57CNC and Mach4 to try answering such questions. It is available in our downloads section: https://www.poscope.com/wp-content/uploads/downloads/Pokeys/LibrariesAndPlugins/Mach4 and PoKeys57CNC - step by step guide.pdf

Click the link to add information to this solution:
What is the 24VDC Power requirement for the Pokeys47CNC? 1A, 2A? ...I'm running a separate 36VDC PS to the Stepper drivers and a 24VDC PS to the Controller.

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