### Question #: 10075

Question:
**
I need the calculation to determine the stepper motor torque to find the load that it can withstand in horizontal position using a lead screw at 1/2" diameter with 13 TPI.
**

**
**

**There are two main questions that we can answer with respect to motor torque and the mechanical advantage of lead screws, 1) What torque motor do you need to lift a particular weight, or 2) What maximum weight will my motor torque be able to lift.
This formula uses Newtons (N) as it's final unit. Use this with the included radius (R) to determine the torque. Newtons can easily be converted to lbs or ounces using online conversions.
Effort = Sf + (Load/(2 x pi x (R/p) x Se))
where:
p = pitch of the screw
Se = screw efficiency = Standard lead screw will be between 20% (.2) and 40% (.4)
Sf = static force. This is the force that is needed to start the movement. The number may be eliminated, but it is good to use a number in the 5 N to 20 N range.
Load = the expected load that the effort will need to carry (i.e., the router and the included axis assembly that the motor will need to lift)
R = radius of the lead screw
This formula is based on the "law of the machine"
The final effort amount with its unit of newtons and R will be the torque. For example, if the effort comes to 100 N (newtons) and the R is .5 inches, then you can assume that the effort is 50 N-in since it would take twice the effort to turn form the one inch mark from the center of the shaft.
Example:
Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 13 = .08 inches
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .08) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 12.5 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (15.7))
Effort = 5 N + (5.73 N)
Effort = 10.7 N = 2.4 lbs = 38.4 oz-in
I am putting the oz-in on the end because the formula considers the distance from the center of the shaft to be one inch.
Therefore, a 425 oz-in motor would be able to lift a 20.2 lb Router with its accompanying assembly. If the assembly and router is heavier, plug in the numbers and determine the effort required.
With a bit of algebra, the formula can be rewritten to find the load:
Load = (Effort - Sf) x (2 x pi x (R/p) x Se)
Another formula that does not consider friction at all:
Effort = (Load x p) / (2 x pi x R)
Lets see if we get similar results:
Effort = (20 lb x .08 inches) / (2 x 3.14 x 1)
Effort = 1.6 / 6.28 = .255 lbs = 4.08 oz-in
The results from both formulas appear to be very small because a 13 TPI screw will have enormous mechanical advantage.
It is evident that the first formula that does consider friction that we are loosely estimating is far more conservative than the second formula. Either way, even the most conservative formula shows that the 425 oz-in motor will handle very large weights. If you are using a lead screw with only two turns per inch, .5 inch pitch, you can determine the requirements with the first formula.
Example for a 10 TPI 5 start (2 turns per inch) lead screw:
Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)
R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated
p = 1 inch / 2 = .5 inches
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .5) x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 2 x .2))
Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2.512))
Effort = 5 N + (35.83 N)
Effort = 40.828 N = 9.18 lbs = 146.88 oz-inCustomer Response:thank you so muchAdditional Information:Additional Information:Additional Information:how do i calculate torque of stepper motor if lead screw coupled to motor shaft and load applied by lead screw on plate is 100 kg by vertically Additional Information:Pls
Additional Information:1m 16mmdiameter ball screws calculations**

**
**

### Other Possible Solutions to this Question

**I need the calculation to determine the stepper motor torque to find the load that it can lift using a lead screw at 1/2" diameter with 13 TPI.**There are two main questions that we can answer with respect to motor torque and the mechanical advantage of lead screws, 1) What torque motor do you need to lift a particular weight, or 2) What maximum weight will my motor torque be able to lift.

This formula uses Newtons (N) as it's final unit. Use this with the included radius (R) to determine the torque. Newtons can easily be converted to lbs or ounces using online conversions.

Effort = Sf + (Load/(2 x pi x (R/p) x Se))

where:

p = pitch of the screw

Se = screw efficiency = Standard lead screw will be between 20% (.2) and 40% (.4)

Sf = static force. This is the force that is needed to start the movement. The number may be eliminated, but it is good to use a number in the 5 N to 20 N range.

Load = the expected load that the effort will need to carry (i.e., the router and the included axis assembly that the motor will need to lift)

R = radius of the lead screw

This formula is based on the "law of the machine"

The final effort amount with its unit of newtons and R will be the torque. For example, if the effort comes to 100 N (newtons) and the R is .5 inches, then you can assume that the effort is 50 N-in since it would take twice the effort to turn form the one inch mark from the center of the shaft.

Example:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)

R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated

p = 1 inch / 13 = .08 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .08) x .2))

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 12.5 x .2))

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (15.7))

Effort = 5 N + (5.73 N)

Effort = 10.7 N = 2.4 lbs = 38.4 oz-in

I am putting the oz-in on the end because the formula considers the distance from the center of the shaft to be one inch.

Therefore, a 425 oz-in motor would be able to lift a 20.2 lb Router with its accompanying assembly. If the assembly and router is heavier, plug in the numbers and determine the effort required.

With a bit of algebra, the formula can be rewritten to find the load:

Load = (Effort - Sf) x (2 x pi x (R/p) x Se)

Another formula that does not consider friction at all:

Effort = (Load x p) / (2 x pi x R)

Lets see if we get similar results:

Effort = (20 lb x .08 inches) / (2 x 3.14 x 1)

Effort = 1.6 / 6.28 = .255 lbs = 4.08 oz-in

The results from both formulas appear to be very small because a 13 TPI screw will have enormous mechanical advantage.

It is evident that the first formula that does consider friction that we are loosely estimating is far more conservative than the second formula. Either way, even the most conservative formula shows that the 425 oz-in motor will handle very large weights. If you are using a lead screw with only two turns per inch, .5 inch pitch, you can determine the requirements with the first formula.

Example for a 10 TPI 5 start (2 turns per inch) lead screw:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)

R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated

p = 1 inch / 2 = .5 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .5) x .2))

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 2 x .2))

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2.512))

Effort = 5 N + (35.83 N)

Effort = 40.828 N = 9.18 lbs = 146.88 oz-in

Customer Response:

thank you so much

Additional Information:

Additional Information:

Additional Information:

how do i calculate torque of stepper motor if lead screw coupled to motor shaft and load applied by lead screw on plate is 100 kg by vertically

Additional Information:

Pls

Additional Information:

1m 16mmdiameter ball screws calculations**Click the link to respond:**

I need the calculation to determine the stepper motor torque to find the load that it can lift using a lead screw at 1/2" diameter with 13 TPI.**thank you for the reply. I would be really good to know the calculation. The lead screw is 1/2" diameter with 13 TPI. Please provide the calculation for determing the maximum weight motor can handle on Z-axis on book build cnc. And one more question. If I am cutting 18mm MDF with 6mm cutting bit (so 6mm pass), what can be the maximum speed rate of cutting and spindle speed of router? thank you**There are two main questions that we can answer with respect to motor torque and the mechanical advantage of lead screws, 1) What torque motor do you need to lift a particular weight, or 2) What maximum weight will my motor torque be able to lift.

This formula uses Newtons (N) as it's final unit. Use this with the included radius (R) to determine the torque. Newtons can easily be converted to lbs or ounces using online conversions.

Effort = Sf + (Load/(2 x pi x (R/p) x Se))

where:

p = pitch of the screw

Se = screw efficiency = Standard lead screw will be between 20% (.2) and 40% (.4)

Sf = static force. This is the force that is needed to start the movement. The number may be eliminated, but it is good to use a number in the 5 N to 20 N range.

Load = the expected load that the effort will need to carry (i.e., the router and the included axis assembly that the motor will need to lift)

R = radius of the lead screw

This formula is based on the "law of the machine"

The final effort amount with its unit of newtons and R will be the torque. For example, if the effort comes to 100 N (newtons) and the R is .5 inches, then you can assume that the effort is 50 N-in since it would take twice the effort to turn form the one inch mark from the center of the shaft.

Example:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)

R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated

p = 1 inch / 13 = .08 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .08) x .2))

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 12.5 x .2))

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (15.7))

Effort = 5 N + (5.73 N)

Effort = 10.7 N = 2.4 lbs = 38.4 oz-in

I am putting the oz-in on the end because the formula considers the distance from the center of the shaft to be one inch.

Therefore, a 425 oz-in motor would be able to lift a 20.2 lb Router with its accompanying assembly. If the assembly and router is heavier, plug in the numbers and determine the effort required.

With a bit of algebra, the formula can be rewritten to find the load:

Load = (Effort - Sf) x (2 x pi x (R/p) x Se)

Another formula that does not consider friction at all:

Effort = (Load x p) / (2 x pi x R)

Lets see if we get similar results:

Effort = (20 lb x .08 inches) / (2 x 3.14 x 1)

Effort = 1.6 / 6.28 = .255 lbs = 4.08 oz-in

The results from both formulas appear to be very small because a 13 TPI screw will have enormous mechanical advantage.

It is evident that the first formula that does consider friction that we are loosely estimating is far more conservative than the second formula. Either way, even the most conservative formula shows that the 425 oz-in motor will handle very large weights. If you are using a lead screw with only two turns per inch, .5 inch pitch, you can determine the requirements with the first formula.

Example for a 10 TPI 5 start (2 turns per inch) lead screw:

Load = 90 N (20.2 lbs)

R = 1 inch since that is the length from the center of the shaft that the motor is rated

p = 1 inch / 2 = .5 inches

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2 x 3.14 x (1 / .5) x .2))

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (6.28 x 2 x .2))

Effort = 5 N + (90 N / (2.512))

Effort = 5 N + (35.83 N)

Effort = 40.828 N = 9.18 lbs = 146.88 oz-in

Customer Response:

thank you so much

Additional Information:

Additional Information:

Additional Information:

how do i calculate torque of stepper motor if lead screw coupled to motor shaft and load applied by lead screw on plate is 100 kg by vertically

Additional Information:

Pls

Additional Information:

1m 16mmdiameter ball screws calculations**How to determine lead screw length needed. My Thomson 1 1:4 rails are 60 inches long roughly for the router I’m building. I know I have to have it long enough to couple up with the stepper motor of course but does it matter if it’s a little long on the other end**It generally does not matter if it is longer at the other end as long as the lead screw provides the desired travel for that axis. The lead screw will only need to be long enough for the travel, plus any structure and lead-nut positioning.

For example:

- The motor that will turn the lead screw will need to be mounted at some position (generally at one end of the axis). In many cases, this positioning will be mounted where some of the lead screw will not be used (the lead nut will not be able to moved close to the coupling of the lead screw to the motor shaft). Add some of the length of the lead screw to be inserted into the coupling.

- If the lead screw will contain bearings at either end of the travel, that portion of the mechanical assembly will need to be considered in the lead screw length.

- The lead-nut will need to be mounted in a position on a structural member of the part that is to move. The distance from the part of the structure that will extend closest to the motor will have some distance to the position of the lead nut. This distance will need to be added to the lead screw length.

Add these discrepancies to the length of the lead screw and the travel length and you will have the final length.**I am asking what to set my steps per using your kit stepper motors and a 1/2"x13 lead screw with Mach3**Here is the formula for steps/inch (steps per inch)

Steps = how many steps for a full ration of the motor = standard motor steps x number of microsteps for each step

Standard motor steps for our stepping motors is 200 steps per revolution.

Microsteps are selected on the driver and are shown as full, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32 etc... Use the denominator for the number of microsteps per step.

Inches = how far the travel is for one full rotation of the motor. For the 1/2" - 13 TPI (threads per inch), the travel length will be 1"/13 or .076923". So, for one revolution of the motor, the travel distance will be .076923 inches.

So, the steps = 200 * microsteps, let's make this 1/4 just for the formula.

The inches will be .076923. Plug those into the formula:

Steps / inch = (200 * 4) / .076923 This can also be written as:

200 * 4 / (1 / 13) = 10,400**Click the link to respond:**

I am asking what to set my steps per using your kit stepper motors and a 1/2"x13 lead screw with Mach3**On the Book Build: I'm changing the 13TPI 1/2" lead screw with the 1/2" 10 TPI Acme screw with the anti backlash nut. This is for the Z axis only. What should I know about installing it and what are the numbers I need to plug into the motor tuning area.**The settings that will have to be change will be your steps per inch in motor tuning (mach 3), or settings/axes(planetCNC). But we do not have the actual numbers/specs that will fit your 10 TPI 5 start lead screw, here is a tutorial video which explains how to get the exact numbers you need! (

).

Here is a default setting that you might be able to tune and adjust accordingly: 1600 steps, accel 400.02, velocity 5.**What would I need to purchase to increase the Z axis stepper motor up one size from the one that comes with the Blacktoe 4.1 with computer? I can't get Patrick to answer e-mails, so I'll try here.**Thanks for the question. The blackToe z-axis motor is a NEMA 24 425 oz-in stepping motor and the next step up is a NEMA 34 651 oz-in motor located here: https://buildyourcnc.com/item/electronicsAndMotors-nema34-651ozin

To make it work on the blackToe CNC machine, you would need to fabricate a new mount and the top bearing mount, or request us to fabricate it for you by calling the office.

Curious, why the need to increase the size? If the motor is having a difficult time, there may be a deeper mechanical issue at play. One issue you may have is that the bearings are needing shim washers to separate the inner and outer races. If the two races are rubbing against the coupling or collar, the bearing may be difficult to turn under the weight of the assembly. If there is too much friction between the anti-backlash nut and the lead screw, you can add some 2-in-1 oil, or other similar lubricant.

Thank you for using our Customer Service Live. Patrick often answers these questions. We prefer this system over email as these questions will benefit others.

If you have additional questions or need more explanation relating to this question, please add to this answer.

User response:

I have added the shim washer between the bearing and coupling and have always used a light oil on the lead screw. I halved the acceleration on the Z-axis. Then I re-ran a topo that took two hours on the finish pass. No change in my results - the Z-axis slowly dropped until when the program finished and everything went back to the start point, the Z axis was lower by 0.378 inches than when it started at 0.800 above the surface.

Any suggestions would be appreciated. Maybe I need more shim washers in the assembly between all the bearing surfaces?

buildyourcnc response:

Before you add a larger motor, check these first:

1. take the motor off by remove only the motor screws and removing the motor as well as the coupling half that is secured to the motor shaft.

2. Turn the lead screw by hand. This will still be connected to the z-axis assembly by the anti-backlash nut, so you will feel the resistance in the upward motion of the z-axis. Does it feel relatively easy to turn, or very difficult?

3. If the resistance is relatively normal with respect to gravity and normal friction between the anti-backlash nut and the screw, then you may want to half the velocity as well on the z-axis motor tuning, and even reduce the acceleration a bit more. Doing topographical layouts should not require fast z-axis motor travel. Be careful not to lower the z-axis acceleration if you are using constant velocity as this can make the topo "too smooth" where there may be features such as cliffs present. If you need to lower acceleration drastically, then use exact stop rather than constant velocity.

Another gotcha that may be causing this phenomenon is motor cable/wire chafing. We had this same issue crop up where two wires were shorting only at a specific position because the wires moved just enough to cause these wires to connect. This was caused by a zip tie. Zip ties have a very sharp edge that can cut the insulation of the wire. A hint of this problem is if this phenomenon is only present after working successfully with the machine for a greater period of time.

Use response:

I bought a new lead screw, bearings, antibacklash nut, and shim washers (WHICH NEED TO BE IN YOUR ONLINE CATALOG) and installed them. (Like another commentor on this site, my lead screw wouldn't go through the bearings. Simple solution was to chuck it into my drill press and 400 grit smooth it until a snug fit was had. Lowest RPM.)

Anyhow, I ran another Topo yesterday and got the same results. The wires are not frayed, the acceleration has been halved, the speed reduced to a crawl. When testing manually, twisting the Z axis up was very hard to do compared to lowering it.

I have thought about a counterbalance of some type, but that introduces lots of other problems.

Anything you can thing of will certainly help.

I can send pictures, etc.

Thanks!

Buildyourcnc response

What router/spindle do you have installed?

User response:

The one you sold me - 110 V, 1.5KW water cooled.

User response:

This problem of the z axis drift has been evident since I first started using the machine a couple of years ago. Lithophanes, stipples, topographic and other heavy z axis users have been particularly bad. It is to the point that I am turning away opportunities for lack of capability.

Buildyourcnc response:

I think all options may be exhausted. We will design a new mount that holds a large motor. Please give us a call so we can arrange to send that out to you.

We just determined that the existing mount need to be adjusted by about one millimeter for the main mounting hoes for the larger NEMA 34 motor to fit. The overall mount will look the same but the outside hole spacing will be adjusted by a very small amount to match the larger motor mounting holes. This new adjustment will be included with all new machines. We will send you the new mount (consisting of two structural pieces) and the longer screws that will be needed to extend to fit the motor frame thickness.

Additional Information:

Additional Information:

They didn't send the longer screws, nor the new required coupling, but I finally got it together and it works just fine. It returns to precise Z zero every time.

But the motor runs pretty hot because I think it should be run at a higher voltage than the current power supply provides.

Any new sales of Blacktoe 4.1 should include this modification.

Cheers.**Click the link to respond:**

What would I need to purchase to increase the Z axis stepper motor up one size from the one that comes with the Blacktoe 4.1 with computer? I can't get Patrick to answer e-mails, so I'll try here.**I have a project very similar to cnc machine. I need 3 lead screws of 1.8 m with all set (supports, bearings...etc). and 3 NEMA 42 motors that I can connect with. if those are available, I need the information about shipping to Oman or UAE.**We carry several sizes of lead screw and stepper motors on our website, for example here https://buildyourcnc.com/Item/mechanical-leadscrews-lead-screw-!5-5-starts-10-tpi and here https://buildyourcnc.com/ProductSearchResults.aspx. Please call us at 281-815-7701 to discuss the particular lengths you would need and shipping options.

Additional Information:

https://buildyourcnc.com/ProductSearchResults.aspx is not working**Click the link to respond:**

I have a project very similar to cnc machine. I need 3 lead screws of 1.8 m with all set (supports, bearings...etc). and 3 NEMA 42 motors that I can connect with. if those are available, I need the information about shipping to Oman or UAE.**I am working with a Spur gear that has a 15 tooth 3/8 bore/ 3/8 wide....is the 651ozin stepper motor compatible with this or do I need to get a different motor**This gear should work with this motor. The shaft on the 651ozin motor is 3/8"

**Click the link to respond:**

I am working with a Spur gear that has a 15 tooth 3/8 bore/ 3/8 wide....is the 651ozin stepper motor compatible with this or do I need to get a different motor**I have a blacktooth laser engraver. The Y Axis stepper motor needs to be replaced. Can you please provide me with the information I would need to replace this motor.**Yes, if you need a replacement part on your machine please call us at 281-815-7701.

**Click the link to respond:**

I have a blacktooth laser engraver. The Y Axis stepper motor needs to be replaced. Can you please provide me with the information I would need to replace this motor.**What are the toggle switch settings on the stepper motor drivers for the .5 in. lead screw 10 tpi 2 turns per inch? Thankyou!**On the top of the stepper motor drivers is a grid with the appropriate toggle switch positions for the lead screw being used. If it is 2 turns per inch, the proper toggle switch positions would be 01101110. Try this and see if it works.

**Click the link to respond:**

What are the toggle switch settings on the stepper motor drivers for the .5 in. lead screw 10 tpi 2 turns per inch? Thankyou!**I cannot find a driver for the NEMA 14 Stepping Motor (17 oz-in 1/4" dual shaft) on your site, would something like the Pololu DRV8834 be okay? (I note that the stepper requires 2.7v)**The NENA 14 motor is paired with this driver and will work very well: https://buildyourcnc.com/item/motion%20electronics-steppermotordriver-newbiehack-Motor_Drivers-2!5_Amp_modular

**Click the link to respond:**

I cannot find a driver for the NEMA 14 Stepping Motor (17 oz-in 1/4" dual shaft) on your site, would something like the Pololu DRV8834 be okay? (I note that the stepper requires 2.7v)**Since I am using normal all-thread lead screw 13 TPI 1/2" for the book build cnc, what can be the maximum feed rate of machine and how can I change the mechanical setup in mach 3? I am using 1/4" steel carbile endmill with 2 flutes and router is 2 HP with variable speed**Book build (scratch build), feedrates and recommendation.

Using standard allthread will provide around 20-30 ipm using 36 volts. Although it allows for a working CNC machine, the RPM of the spindle/router will need to spin at the lowest setting to provide the beat efficiency and life for the end mill at 1/4" cut diameter and higher. The speeds may be fine for smaller end mills.

If you would like faster speeds, you should change the lead screws on the CNC machine to the 1/2" 5 start 10 TPI which translates to 2 turns per inch which means, the stepping motor will not need to turn as fast to produce faster motion. That is to say, the stepping motor will only need to turn two revolutions for the machine to travel one inch and with the allthread, the stepping motor will need to turn 13 times to reach one inch.

Link to the lead screw and other mechanical parts needed:

https://www.buildyourcnc.com/CNCMachineMechanicalParts.aspx

To change the lead screws you will need (for each axis):

1. The lead screw for that axis.

2. Two 1/2" collars to keep the lead screw axially stable.

3. One Antibacklash nut.

Additional Information:

20**I bought a Blacktoe 2 x 8 three years ago and have always had a problem with the Zid axis. No matter how tightly I've calibrated the axis it always cuts to deep. Can I put a larger Stepper motor on Z-axis using the same motion electronics that came with the original machine.**Modifying the Z-axis to accommodate a larger motor will be a worth while task and is possible, however we have not calibrated the z-axis therefore using the 1600 Steps-per inch in the motor tuning on our machine in our shop. We have not noticed any significant depth increments from not calibrating the z-axis but only from zeroing the z axis too close to the material. Also in your design did you specify the actual depth and the length of tool (end mill/ bit) that you are using?

**How can i calculate how much can carry my stepper motor? i have these informations: (Detent Torque: 2.2N.cm; Rotor Inertia: 54g.cm2; Holding Torque: 40N.cm). It's a nema 17**The holding torque will provide the best information for the calculation on how much your stepper motor will carry. But first, when you say carry, do you mean how much weight it can lift, how much inertia it can withstand during an acceleration and deceleration state or how fast it can accelerate or velocity it can maintain under load from the milling process?

**Click the link to respond:**

How can i calculate how much can carry my stepper motor? i have these informations: (Detent Torque: 2.2N.cm; Rotor Inertia: 54g.cm2; Holding Torque: 40N.cm). It's a nema 17**How can i calculate how much can carry my stepper motor? i have these informations: (Detent Torque: 2.2N.cm; Rotor Inertia: 54g.cm2; Holding Torque: 40N.cm). It's a nema 17**The holding torque will provide the best information for the calculation on how much your stepper motor will carry. But first, when you say carry, do you mean how much weight it can lift, how much inertia it can withstand during an acceleration and deceleration state or how fast it can accelerate or velocity it can maintain under load from the milling process?

**Click the link to respond:**

How can i calculate how much can carry my stepper motor? i have these informations: (Detent Torque: 2.2N.cm; Rotor Inertia: 54g.cm2; Holding Torque: 40N.cm). It's a nema 17**The website states the shaft of the NEMA 24 stepper motor is 1/4" in diameter. However, the datasheet states the shaft is 8mm in diameter. Which is correct?**The input shaft for the NEMA 24 is 1/4" inch/ 6.5mm, the schematic has a error which states 8mm, which should be 6.5mm.

**Click the link to respond:**

The website states the shaft of the NEMA 24 stepper motor is 1/4" in diameter. However, the datasheet states the shaft is 8mm in diameter. Which is correct?**How can I decrease the rapid acceleration of the cutter from a completed cutting operation to a new location so that the stepper motor will not lose its steps and mess up the machine zero settings? I am using CamBam and Mach3 on my machine with a chain drive. what is the best way to reduce accleration**Decreasing the speed of acceleration in the cutter? Meaning of your router/spindle?, To modify the speed of a router will be going to the router itself and modifying the speed, but if a spindle is being used modifying it will be done either manually in the VFD (VFD Setup:

Change PD001 to '0' (source of run commands)

Change PD003 to 300 (main frequency - Hz)

Change PD004 to 300 (base frequency - Hz)

Change PD005 to 400 (max operating frequency - Hz)

Change PD006 to 2.5 (intermediate frequency - Hz)

Change PD008 to 220 (max voltage - V)

Change PD009 to 15 (intermediate voltage - V)

Change PD010 to 8 (minimum voltage - V)

Change PD011 to 100 (frequency lower limit - Hz)

Change PD142 to 7 (rated motor current - Amps)

Change PD143 to 2 (motor pole number)

Change PD144 to 3000 (rated motor revolution))<- make sure these are your settings in the VFD. If the spindle is wired to the breakout board and is working through Mach 3 then the modification will be done in your CamBam/Feed rate settings.**I HAVE FOLLOWED ALL THE "CNC ELECTRONICS 1 - 9" VIDEOS AND I'M USING ALMOST EXACT SAME COMPONENTS (MOTORS RUN SOUND GOOD) BUT MOTORS ARE RUNING VERY HOT IN JUST 15MIN WITH NO LOAD DONE SOMETHING WRONG OR DO STEPPERS HOT?**If your motors are hot to the touch, this is normal. Current is being drawn by the motor coils as the motor moves and as the motor stays at a position. If the motor is not using the current in the coils to move (holding it's position), the energy will be translated as heat (rather than motion, sound or light). Even while moving, some of the energy will be lost as heat. Remember that energy cannot be created nor destroyed.

**Click the link to respond:**

I HAVE FOLLOWED ALL THE "CNC ELECTRONICS 1 - 9" VIDEOS AND I'M USING ALMOST EXACT SAME COMPONENTS (MOTORS RUN SOUND GOOD) BUT MOTORS ARE RUNING VERY HOT IN JUST 15MIN WITH NO LOAD DONE SOMETHING WRONG OR DO STEPPERS HOT?**With a 1/2 lead screw what is the optimal steps for the stepper motor driver 1/16, 1/8, 1/4 etc**We typically use a 1/4 microstepping for lead screws, but you want to determine the microstepping only after you determine what resolution you want on that axis of the machine.

The formula:

Resolution is steps per inch or steps per milimeter

I will go over this using steps/inch:

steps = motor steps x driver microstepping

inch = the amount of travel with one full stepper motor rotation

In the case of our 1/2" 5 start 10 TPI lead screw, the axis will travel .5 inches with one stepper motor rotation.

Let's use 1/4 microstepping (4 microsteps for each stepper motor step)

Therefore:

(200 steps x 4) / .5 inches =

800 steps / .5 inches =

1600 steps/inch

Now let's use 1/2 microstepping (2 mistrosteps)

(200 steps x 2) / .5 inches =

400 steps / .5 inches =

800 steps/inch

Remember that increasing microsteps, the torque is also reduced, but the smoothness from the motor is increased.**Click the link to respond:**

With a 1/2 lead screw what is the optimal steps for the stepper motor driver 1/16, 1/8, 1/4 etc